什么是批判?

Definition: A design critiquerefers to analyzing a design, and giving feedback on whether it meets its objectives.

设计批评通常表现为与改善设计的最终目标的群体对话。它并不意味着简单地判断设计。

There are two distinct breeds of design critiques:独立批评anddesign reviews。Standalone critiques are gatherings with the sole purpose of improving a particular piece of work. Design reviews, in contrast, are usually evaluations of a design based on a set of heuristics; they can be done by a usability expert or in a meeting held at the end of the creative process in order to gain approval and move forward. In this article we will focus specifically on standalone critiques.

In a standalone critique, there are two roles: the presenter and the critiquer. The主持人shares the design, while the批评acts as the critic, offering informed thoughts or perspectives. (Both roles can involve multiple people.) Critiques can, and should be, crossdisciplinary. They can happen at any stage in a design process, and usually there will be different critique sessions for several iterations of the same design.

在本文中,您将遵守3个有效批评的基础主题:

  1. Clear scope for the conversation.由于缺乏范围,批评通常会变得笨拙。批评只会证明是否有可能并且应该批评的明确界限。一旦设定了边界,就可以确定参与者,持续时间和形式。
  2. 同意的工作设计目标。为了分析设计以及它是否符合其目标,必须就需要解决的问题必须达成协议。这可能意味着清楚地了解用户及其需求。没有这些,任何反馈都是主观的,毫无毫无意义。
  3. Conversation rather than command.命令或指令,可以非常迅速破坏批评的准确目的,这是为了提高开放讨论,以提高结果..

“批评”这个词在日常语言中有略微否定的内涵,但是当根据这个定义进行时,设计批评是一个积极的事件,应该对所涉及的各方感觉良好。

Why Critique?

几乎不可能改善设计而没有其他人的反馈。他们的意见有助于您避免错误,从而创造更高的质量工作。旧的说戒指是正确的:两个大脑(在这种情况下)总是比一个更好。

批评的积极文化支持多种方式的团队建设。首先,从Go-Go,每个人都能够保持最新和在工作中的循环中。早期分享设计允许从团队成员那里获得较早的买入,否则可能对工作感到有信心并建立团队共识。随着时间的推移,这种做法创造了团队信任并阻止任何破坏性的EGO对项目造成太大损害。

Second, design critiques enable cooperation and collaboration. Your work can influence the work of others. For example, developers could build more extensible code throughout the current release if they have an understanding for what designs may come in the future. In this same way, they could question technical feasibility when the designs are still in progress and can be changed without throwing time and money away. Multiple designers who work on different parts of a big project can pick up possible inconsistencies across the overall user experience when they all participate in early critiques of each other’s draft designs.

UX Design Critiques: Angel critiquer says

促进批判

便利化是批评的核心方面。传统上,便利化是用于管理混沌过程的机制。因为康纳和伊别维酒描述了“批评”促进是一种有意识,均衡的对话管理。“此管理创建生产性对话所需的结构和框架。

There are two main facilitation approaches to UX critiques:

  • Round robin.与会者一个接一个地分享他们的观点,在桌面上进行。该方法提供了两个明显的优点。首先,每个人都有贡献。其次,这个过程感到民主党:你可以在桌子上的随机位置开始,任何人都有机会先进(如果不是第一次,那么下次)。
  • Quotas.协调人从每个参与者那里收集特定的预定数量的正负评论。例如,每个参与者可以分享设计的两个方面,似乎准确地满足用户的需求,以及可以改进的一个方面。这种方法特别应仅作为启动对话的方式使用。一旦有自然的交换,批评就可以基于对话的位置进行(假设它落在集合范围内)。

团队的成员应作为指定的facilitator,in charge with the overall handling of the critique. It is best to rotate the role of facilitation from critique to critique. This circumvents one team member always dominating the conversation or directing the outcome. Rotating facilitators can also allow introverted team members to gain experience and confidence managing the team.

促进者的责任将有所不同,但可能会包括时间拳击,保持对话,并谈判任何紧张局势。其他重要职责是:

  • 创建,然后分配设计批判的范围和议程。为了使批评有效,必须有一个计划进入它。定义这个计划是推动者的责任。在进行批评之前,有关键部件在进行批评之前。

    首先,让每个人都意识到批评的范围和目标。制定对谈话应该不应该掩盖的常识是使团队最大的时间的重要组成部分。事先建立规则和期望,以确保参与者知道批评是什么以及如何运行。此外,分享将批评的工作 - 您希望在批评时避免大惊喜,同时还为参与者提供真正考虑工作之前的工作的时间。

    Here’s an example of the facilitator’s email specifying a critique topic and scope:

    Example of Facilitator's Agenda Email
    Example of facilitator’s email prior to the critique

    其次,目的地选择将参加批判的人。理想情况下,这个小组将是跨学科。

  • Asking the right questions。协调人的作用是要求按下问题,以确保演示者正在得到正确的反馈。促进者可以重新重新制约声音的问题或评论(“这太红了!”)或指令(“我会以不同的方式完成!”)将它们与设计的目标相关联。
    • Bad question:Yikes… that layout!
    • 重新制定:How does this layout make it easier for the user to accomplish their task quickly and efficiently?
    • 反馈不好:我喜欢那些颜色,但我认为按钮在错误的位置,整体页面看起来很忙。
    • 重新制定:If the goal is to have the user register quickly, I’m concerned we are placing emphasis on the wrong elements and hiding the primary task by making the button hard to find.
  • 记录讨论。A facilitator may also act as a recorder. In some cases, someone else on the team can adopt this role. The recorder should take notes publicly, using a collaborative editing tool, and should allow all participants to add additional observations and clarification in real time.

    以下是使用电子表格跟踪批评会话结果的示例:

    Spreadsheet recording a critique session
    Spreadsheet recording a critique session
  • 跟进。It is the facilitator’s job to wrap up the conversation. The follow up should comprise notes from the critique, as well as action items moving forward. Emailing the participants or posting a summary in a collaborative place can maintain the momentum after a critique.

呈现设计批评

展示工作,是否在批判环境not, makes the presenter feel vulnerable, especially if the critique is not established in your organization. Remember to not take feedback personally; instead, keep your mindset on improving your product. This attitude will make it easier to work though points of tension and will enable you to gain maximum value from the critique.

When you’re presenting your work in a design critique, follow these best practices:

  • Repeat objectives。Prior to starting the critique, reiterate the goals of the work. Quickly summarize personas, current pain points, user tasks, or previous work.

    如上所述,事先发出您的工作也是一个好主意,以避免基于某人的肠道反应的初始反应反馈。

  • Tell a story。通过讲述您的工作故事来启动批评。虽然这可能会觉得愚蠢,但它不仅是对客户的讲故事的良好做法,而且它将观众循环进入您遇到的问题以及在灵感和决策点。跟随它具有特定的反馈请求:有效,什么都没有,在哪里需要输入和建议。Present your work quickly and efficiently。We like to overexplain as a means of defending every decision we have made, because we are often emotionally tied to our designs. Try to be concise and to the point. After presenting, the team can always circle back to something that needs more discussion — but avoid eating up unnecessary time in the initial presentation.

    展示的这种方法也将具有额外的好处,允许您的批评允许在您的用户可能会看到您的工作,而无需说明。在随后的讨论期间,问题和随附的解释将自然出现。

  • 让您的设计随时可用。如果您的设计未在会议之前发出,请使您的设计在批评之后可用,以便需要进行扩展讨论。如果您需要更详细地讨论任何人的反馈,请安排个人后续会议。

Making Critiques Part of Your Process

设计批评应该是迭代创作过程的关键部分,但将反馈纳入您的团队现有流程可能会袭击障碍。这是一个让你能够体验令人批评的人和情景困难和令人沮丧。批评通常反对总体组织结构或某些团队成员对象。在这种情况下,最好的方法是to start soon and start small

Thesoonyour team understands and absorbs design critiques into existing processes, the sooner your products will reap the benefits that come from these important conversations. Start now, by running critiques for your current design project — in whatever state that may be. Don’t wait for the kickoff of your next big project. Even if you can’t make substantial improvements to an in-progress project, you can refine your critique culture so that you’re better positioned for great things on that next project.

开始小通过推进在您的直接团队中交换更好的反馈。发生这种情况越多,它就越有可能成为您流程的自然部分。尝试每周致敬30分钟,以便在您团队中的某人的一个循环批判批评。

If critique is already a successful part of your team’s process, think about inviting someone with a different background or from a different department on a rotating basis. Critique helps create a common foundation by bringing together different perspectives. Over time, not only do extended-team members get a better feel for the design process, but you alsobuild trust and a shared vocabularythroughout the discussions.

Critique Pitfalls

对轨道和有效保持批评是艰苦的工作。以下是对批评产生负面影响的坏习惯:

  • 事先不同意角色或目标
  • 安排太长的批评会议
  • 个人接受反馈意见
  • 急于解决问题
  • 只谈论底片

结论

创造诚实批评的文化需要时间和投资,但它通过纳入多个观点来改善设计。批评正在进行的设计项目在最终目标之前提供更改,而不会影响项目成本和时间表,并最终确保最终产品符合原始目标。

Use the attached critique cheat sheet as a guide for you and your team — either as a reference or to create a baseline understanding of the process amongst your team. If your team is already using some form of design critiques, use these best practices to refine and increase the effectiveness of the conversation.

了解更多关于在我们的积极批评文化中创造积极的批评文化full-day training course on Communicating Design

参考

Connor, A., & Irizarry, A. 2015.Discussing Design.O’Reilly Media.