Psychology and behavioral-economics principles often help designers create interfaces that steer users in a desired direction. For example,展望理论与损失厌恶教我们允许用户尝试服务之前注册它将增加注册数量。例如,考虑Roadtrippers.com.是一个旅行计划应用程序,让访问者立即进入目的地并开始建立旅行,而不创建帐户。一旦用户投入了自己的时间学习界面并计划一条路线,他们就会迅速获得所有权感,并且将有动力创建一个帐户以避免“失去”工作。

The same psychology principles which drive users’ decision making also influence how designers make choices — after all, designers are people too.

Most UX design choices don’t have a single ‘right’ answer. Instead, resolvingdesign trade-offs严重依赖上下文。因此,UX设计决策特别容易受到偏见的影响框架.

Definition: A是用于描述一个想法,问题或决定的上下文。框架通过强调(或忽略)情况的某些方面来影响我们的解释和结论。

框架是一个著名的心理学现象。Psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky explored the effect of decision frames and found that the exact same information can lead to opposite conclusions, depending on the frame used to present the decision. For example, a price which is described as ‘discounted’ will attract more buyers than the same price without the ‘discounted’ label. Framing affects all aspects of UX work, from interpreting research findings to selecting design alternatives.

How Framing Affects Design Choices

想象一下,您正在研究网站设计,并刚刚使用20个用户完成了可用性测试。使用该网站的搜索功能涉及的一个任务,因此您现在有一个数字测量有多少用户能够找到和使用搜索功能。

The task results could be stated in 2 different ways:

  • 20个用户中有4个找不到网站上的搜索功能。
  • 找到了20个用户中的16个网站上的搜索功能。

逻辑上,这两个语句都描述了与目标数据点完全相同的结果。但如果你是大多数人,那么结论根据使用哪些措辞,您可能会非常不同。

We recently tested this very circumstance, in an online quiz. As of this writing, 1,037 UX practitioners have participated in the quiz. Participants were randomly assigned to see each version of the hypothetical study results: half saw the negative version and half saw the positive. All were asked the same follow-up question: “Should the search function be redesigned?”

用于描述该发现的精确措辞 - 无论是符合成功率还是失败率 - 不应该重要。但它确实如下:如下图所示,看到被描述为失败率描述的从业者31%的人可能相信要重新设计所需的设计than those who saw the same result expressed as a success rate. (Only 39% of users who saw the success rate supported a redesign, but among users who saw the failure rate, 51% supported a redesign — an increase of 30.7% compared to the ‘success’ group. In case you’re wondering, this difference is statistically significant at p <0.0001.)

框架问题响应率:在显示“失败率”时,为重新设计提出51%,但在将与“成功率”的数据显示相同的数据时,只有39%的提倡重新设计
31% more UX practitioners agreed that a search function should be redesigned after seeing a task-failure rate, compared to practitioners who saw the exact same information expressed as a success rate.

In the real world, there's no single 'right' answer to this question. It’s a judgment call, and the best answer could be influenced by a variety of factors, such as the type of website, the overall importance of the search function, and any implementation costs. Since none of this information was provided in our quiz, ‘I’m not sure’ was technically the best choice, and it’s unsettling that only a minority of practitioners admitted they didn’t know the answer. (It’s also misleading to infer that the success rate for finding the search function in the interface is 16/20= 80% — in fact, the true success rate may be anywhere between 58% and 93% with 95% confidence, as we explain in our class on测量用户体验。)

The phrasing of research findings is an obvious example of the potential for framing effects. But this bias also impacts design choices in subtler ways. For example:

  • 不完整的决策框架,这考虑只有现有用户而不是潜在的未来用户,可能会忽略扩展观众的关键机会。
  • Overly specific frames, which ask questions like ‘should we implement a responsive version of our site to better support some tasks’, may overlook other important considerations, such as the potential search ranking benefit of mobile-optimized design.

How to Counteract Framing Bias

框架是决策的必要部分。完全消除框架是不可能的,而且根本没有帮助,因为没有上下文,你无法比较选项。

诀窍是意识到你的决策框架,以便你并没有无意识地忽略重要信息。这三种策略有助于最大限度地减少框架偏差的影响:

  1. 抵制脉冲以进行快照判断。快速行动是令人满意的,但花时间通过上下文明确地思考产生更准确和有意义的决策框架。在我们的示例中,考虑花费的时间量花费和运行可用性研究(有20个用户,这可能需要超过花了40个小时上many small studies). Spending just a little more time thinking about the findings will vastly increase the ROI of the total investment.
  2. 在做出决定之前收集更多上下文。就像被承认他们不确定答案的从业者 - 承认(至少对自己!)当你没有足够的数据来做出明智的选择时。然后考虑如何了解如何更多地了解情况。
  3. Experiment with different frames. Try restating your question in reverse terms, or from a different point of view. Taking a few seconds to simply flip a data point from a success rate to a failure rate, or to consider not just a percentage of failure but the actual number of people affected, is a quick way to check whether your opinion is being unduly influenced by framing.

了解我们全天课程中的框架,认知偏见和设计决策的更多信息:UX设计权衡:决策框架.

参考:

Tversky,A.,&Kahneman,D。(1981)。决定的框架和选择的心理学。科学,211.(4481),453-458。从...获得http://www.jstor.org/stable/1685855