在过去的几十年中,组织在他们如何向客户提供产品和服务的情况下发挥得多。不久前,只有少数互动的方式与组织互动:访问它的砂砾地点(实际上,我们曾经只是在没有需要修改器的情况下调用这个“位置”),称之为或者,一旦网络出现,就访问其网站。服务代表与客户之间的一对一互动是这一关系的很大一部分。然而,随着技术的高级技术,我们与企业的许多互动在线移动。我们现在可以在网上做任何事情 - 从开立支票账户购买我们的每周杂货,而不会与实际的人发言。来自客户服务的独立性往往是我们许多人(以及组织也是如此):我们希望在我们自己的家或手掌中舒适,方便,方便,快速的商业交易。

Although web-based客户旅程可能看起来比过去的旅程更简单,他们实际上可以很复杂。今天的客户与各种设备和数字渠道的组织互动。因此,提供无缝和不间断的Omnichannel用户体验,公司必须丰富地了解其用户的行为和需求。当他们成功做这样做时,基于网络的客户旅程良好,对双方都是理想的,但在许多情况下,有一个破坏点,要求用户联系组织以获得支持。

We conducted two日记研究to understand how customers interact with organizations using various channels and what organizations do to provide successful omnichannel customer experiences. We asked people to report every interaction they had with an organization as they completed tasks such as shopping for insurance, opening a checking account, or making a large purchase. Most of these can be characterized as medium-complex tasks: not a quick question, but also not a horrendously complicated problem.

Of the 45 unique customer journeys we analyzed, 64% included at least oneuser-initiated point of direct contact with the organization,其中一些涉及多个联系人。该网络是用于开展业务的特派团关键的频道,因此可以令人震惊在ly a third of customer journeys could be completed online without requiring the customer to contact the organization for support。这意味着自助服务目标的2/3故障率,例如降低呼叫中心成本或提高客户满意度。

为什么客户联系组织

When we analyzed the data from our diary studies, we noticed that people contacted companies for one of four reasons:

  • 服务问题。该se occur when the outcome of an interaction with a company is not as expected. Examples include:
    • 一位用户开设了花旗银行信用卡,他应该在三个月内完成一定数量的交易后获得300美元的回报。当这笔付款没有来时,他联系了花旗银行解决这个问题。
    • Several other users contacted retail stores when their merchandise arrived broken or defective.
  • Roadblocks.该se occur when users cannot complete a task on their channel of choice for various reasons (e.g., they’ve encountered an error or the task is not supported) and must switch to a different channel to complete the task. In these situations, only very motivated customers persevere. Many customers who are not brand loyal give up and abandon their task in favor of a better experience with a competitor. For example:
    • 在他提交它之后,一个用户需要将另一个项目添加到他的在线杂货订单中,但网站不支持更改订单。他打电话给商店进行更新。
    • One user attempted to sign up online for a Charles Schwab checking account, but received an insurmountable error during the application process. She reached out through online chat and also made a phone call.
  • Missing or confusing information.许多用户在我们的研究中有信息需求were not met at specific points in their journey, because the site content was ambiguous or absent. In some cases, customers contacted the organizations for reassurance and confirmation that they were interpreting complex information correctly before proceeding. Some examples:
    • One user who was looking to get a home-equity loan on the USAA website found a note indicating that the home-equity loan product had been suspended. She called USAA to ask how long it was suspended.
    • 用户购买一个保护恒温器已经重新筑巢searched the two models available through the website and social media, but decided to call a Nest technician to help him understand which model worked best for his needs because the information on the website and other channels was not detailed enough. (The need tocompare and contrast choicesWeb可用性的关键,但通常支持不良。)
    • A Singapore user shopping for travel insurance on DBS Bank’s site could not figure out from the policy description whether it covered lost luggage or only delayed bags. He indicated he would call DBS to clarify the information.
  • Perception of complexity.在一个相对较少的情况下,用户简单地通过用代表工作一对一来完成任务,因为他们觉得任务太复杂了,对于它们提供的数字频道太复杂。(这是施加限制的一个例子the communication channel’s capacity: when users think that they need to transmit too much information through a narrow-capacity channel, they usually switch to higher-capacity one — digital or in-person). In these situations, the tasks may have been supported online, but users chose not to use those channels. Here’s one example:
    • One user who was shopping for car insurance visited the websites for Farmer’s Insurance and Good Sam Insurance, but instead of researching and getting a quote online, she chose to call and discuss her options with agents from both companies.

In our data sample, 36% of all tasks (16 out of 45) did not require customer service. Missing information was the most frequent reason for contacting customer service (38% or 11 out of 28), followed by service issues and roadblocks (24% each or 7 out of 29). Perception of complexity was the least common reason (14% or 4 out 29 tasks).

piechart-休息时间
Pie chart breakdown of the reasons for contacting customer service for 29 of the 45 tasks studied.

该most common method of contacting customer service was by telephone (18 out of 29 tasks). Email was the second most common method for reaching out for support (9 out of 29 tasks), followed by online chat (2 out of 29 tasks) and social media(1 out of 29 tasks).

piechart - contactchannels
Pie chart breakdown of the methods used for contacting customer service.

An important conclusion from our data is that most of the timecontacting customer service reflects a failure in the user experience。Even in the case when people choose not to engage with an online interface from the start, the expectation of poor user experience was the cause behind that decision.

任何时候客户的在线任务都被中断,并且被迫联系组织,其他不必要的接触点被添加到他们的旅程中。中断和通道切换(从数字到人类或以其他方式)降低客户体验。随着时间的推移,他们对客户满意度和忠诚度的关键指标产生负面影响,最终您的业务底线。

最大限度地减少客户服务的需求

如果用户联系客户服务,则表示您的在线频道未能解决该用户的需求。旨在消除客户联系您的组织的需求。不是因为你不想支持你的客户,而是因为你希望你的客户能够努力完成他们的任务,但他们找到方便。让我们说实话,没有人想坐在抓住与支持代表谈话,无论那个人有多好。

最小化客户服务需求的两个关键组件是:

1. Understanding the customer journey.远离您在每个频道上提供的功能和功能,并花点时间才能理解用户如何通过解决方案来完成任务的背景。什么触发他们去你的网站?是每月通讯,促销邮箱,社交岗位中的链接,还是广告?他们与您的产品互动时,他们经历的阶段是什么?这些上下文中的每一个都可以与不同的用户期望相关联。识别:

  • Customers’ expectations for each of these contexts
  • Customers’ information needs at every step of their journeys
  • Devices or channels that customers choose in each of these different contexts and at different stages
  • 可能从一个频道转换到另一个频道和用户围绕这些转换的期望
When she was browsing Air Asia’s Facebook page on her phone, a study participant tapped on a deal for a flight to New Zealand during the month of March. She was taken to a desktop page containing an exhaustive list of deals for a variety of destinations and time periods. She attempted to use the filters at the top of the list to locate the New Zealand deals, with little success. She explained, “This brings me to the whole page with all promotions, but it would be better if it could bring me to just this promotion for the month of March.”

2.为旅程设计。组织必须将他们的心态与个人渠道解决方案转移到一个跨越多个渠道的总体解决方案,无论客户如何选择互动。

设计通道和设备解决方案,与客户旅程中的频道角色和使用范围和用户的期望保持一致。支持渠道之间的转换:每次用户必须在任务期间更改频道时,都有机会失败(如上面在Air Asia示例中所示),通常导致需要联系客户服务。

Google Maps: Users commonly look up directions to a location on a tablet or desktop first, to get an idea of where they are going. Then they access the directions again on their phones to navigate to their destination. Google supports this channel transition by providing an option to send the directions to the phone.

An important part of designing for the customer journey is tounderstand and eliminate common reasons for contact.与您的客户支持团队密切合作,以确定收到的最常见的投诉和问题。请勿忽视任何联系方式,请发送电话,电子邮件,在线聊天或社交媒体。然后将注意力集中在解决导致这些常见问题的根问题。在整个用户之旅中了解信息需求,并确保通过重新加工令人困惑的内容或创建新内容来正确解决它们。确定和消除重点客户旅程的障碍和费力的渠道过渡。

使客户服务轻松抵达

最小化客户呼叫的简单方法是不提供电话号码或其他联系信息。不要这样做。减少客户服务的需求并不意味着消除客户服务。In fact, since you can’t possibly plan and design for every situation in which someone may want to speak with a representative, make it easy for your customers to contact your organization at any step in the journey. Some of the most frustrated users in our research were those who needed to contact an organization and could not do so. Some companies’ contact information was inexistent or very difficult to find, so people thought that the company was trying to avoid being contacted entirely. In these situations, customers resorted to Google or social channels to find contact information for the organization. And the organization lost their trust — a one-way ticket to the sand below the信任金字塔that had probably taken the company’s brand team years to build.

因此,在消除障碍和简化信道转换的精神中,为客户提供明确的路径,请联系您的组织。

DBS bank includes a path toward multiple contact options in the right rail of its complex travel-insurance product page.

Make transitions to a contact channel seamless.If you provide a path to contact, make this transition as effortless as possible. Take advantage of technology and device capabilities to do so. Whenever your organization sends a customer to another channel, ask yourself what the next step will be and how you can make it easier.

左:UPS我的选择iPhone应用程序让客户输入送货地址以接收交货状态通知。但是,当UPS无法作为住宅地址识别该条目时,它只是呈现了一个障碍,具有错误消息,基本上说“将其摘掉自己自己”。右:西南航空公司的iPhone应用程序不支持预订国际目的地。它不是用roadblock呈现用户,而是提供错误消息以及用户可以解决问题的两个可能频道的路径。该良好错误消息指南are 35 years old, yet only one of these two companies complied.

Provide multiple options for contacting customer service.每个客户问题都有自己独特的情况,背景和紧迫程度,因此不要强迫所有用户在同一路径上联系您的组织。为人们提供所需的灵活性和信息级别,以便选择最适合其情况的联系渠道。

One participant in our study had a simple question for his auto maker, Nissan. He chose to chat with a Nissan support agent via Nissan’s mobile website because he was riding the bus on his way home from work and it would have been difficult to have a phone conversation on the noisy bus. If Nissan had only provided a customer-service hotline number, he would have had to wait until he got home from work and navigate his way through a call tree to get a very simple question answered.

Customer service through many channels: phone, social media, email, and chat
Venn diagram of common customer-contact channels and reasons why customers choose each of them
overstock.com为其用户提供了多个联系客户服务的选项。它还为每个频道上的响应时间提供了有用的语境,以确定期望,帮助人们为他们的个人情况选择合适的选择。

Conclusion

我们经常通过我们的产品和服务来设计快乐的道路,我们不一定计划直接客户联系成为他们的旅程,但客户仍然需要一对一的支持来克服问题。了解客户联系和解决Omnichannel解决方案中的潜在问题的常见原因将减少客户联系的需求,并创建一个Omnichannel生态系统,允许用户在没有中断和障碍的情况下自行服务。在客户确实需要通过联系频道伸出的情况下,提供选项,并使这些过渡尽可能轻松。

We discuss how to research customer journey and more concrete tips for minimizing the need for customer service in our full-day courseOmnichannel旅程和客户体验