在过去的几十年中，组织在他们如何向客户提供产品和服务的情况下发挥得多。不久前，只有少数互动的方式与组织互动：访问它的砂砾地点（实际上，我们曾经只是在没有需要修改器的情况下调用这个“位置”），称之为或者，一旦网络出现，就访问其网站。服务代表与客户之间的一对一互动是这一关系的很大一部分。然而，随着技术的高级技术，我们与企业的许多互动在线移动。我们现在可以在网上做任何事情 - 从开立支票账户购买我们的每周杂货，而不会与实际的人发言。来自客户服务的独立性往往是我们许多人（以及组织也是如此）：我们希望在我们自己的家或手掌中舒适，方便，方便，快速的商业交易。
We conducted two日记研究to understand how customers interact with organizations using various channels and what organizations do to provide successful omnichannel customer experiences. We asked people to report every interaction they had with an organization as they completed tasks such as shopping for insurance, opening a checking account, or making a large purchase. Most of these can be characterized as medium-complex tasks: not a quick question, but also not a horrendously complicated problem.
Of the 45 unique customer journeys we analyzed, 64% included at least oneuser-initiated point of direct contact with the organization,其中一些涉及多个联系人。该网络是用于开展业务的特派团关键的频道，因此可以令人震惊在ly a third of customer journeys could be completed online without requiring the customer to contact the organization for support。这意味着自助服务目标的2/3故障率，例如降低呼叫中心成本或提高客户满意度。
When we analyzed the data from our diary studies, we noticed that people contacted companies for one of four reasons:
- 服务问题。该se occur when the outcome of an interaction with a company is not as expected. Examples include:
- Several other users contacted retail stores when their merchandise arrived broken or defective.
- Roadblocks.该se occur when users cannot complete a task on their channel of choice for various reasons (e.g., they’ve encountered an error or the task is not supported) and must switch to a different channel to complete the task. In these situations, only very motivated customers persevere. Many customers who are not brand loyal give up and abandon their task in favor of a better experience with a competitor. For example:
- One user attempted to sign up online for a Charles Schwab checking account, but received an insurmountable error during the application process. She reached out through online chat and also made a phone call.
- Missing or confusing information.许多用户在我们的研究中有信息需求were not met at specific points in their journey, because the site content was ambiguous or absent. In some cases, customers contacted the organizations for reassurance and confirmation that they were interpreting complex information correctly before proceeding. Some examples:
- One user who was looking to get a home-equity loan on the USAA website found a note indicating that the home-equity loan product had been suspended. She called USAA to ask how long it was suspended.
- 用户购买一个保护恒温器已经重新筑巢searched the two models available through the website and social media, but decided to call a Nest technician to help him understand which model worked best for his needs because the information on the website and other channels was not detailed enough. (The need tocompare and contrast choicesWeb可用性的关键，但通常支持不良。）
- A Singapore user shopping for travel insurance on DBS Bank’s site could not figure out from the policy description whether it covered lost luggage or only delayed bags. He indicated he would call DBS to clarify the information.
- Perception of complexity.在一个相对较少的情况下，用户简单地通过用代表工作一对一来完成任务，因为他们觉得任务太复杂了，对于它们提供的数字频道太复杂。（这是施加限制的一个例子the communication channel’s capacity: when users think that they need to transmit too much information through a narrow-capacity channel, they usually switch to higher-capacity one — digital or in-person). In these situations, the tasks may have been supported online, but users chose not to use those channels. Here’s one example:
- One user who was shopping for car insurance visited the websites for Farmer’s Insurance and Good Sam Insurance, but instead of researching and getting a quote online, she chose to call and discuss her options with agents from both companies.
In our data sample, 36% of all tasks (16 out of 45) did not require customer service. Missing information was the most frequent reason for contacting customer service (38% or 11 out of 28), followed by service issues and roadblocks (24% each or 7 out of 29). Perception of complexity was the least common reason (14% or 4 out 29 tasks).
该most common method of contacting customer service was by telephone (18 out of 29 tasks). Email was the second most common method for reaching out for support (9 out of 29 tasks), followed by online chat (2 out of 29 tasks) and social media(1 out of 29 tasks).
An important conclusion from our data is that most of the timecontacting customer service reflects a failure in the user experience。Even in the case when people choose not to engage with an online interface from the start, the expectation of poor user experience was the cause behind that decision.
1. Understanding the customer journey.远离您在每个频道上提供的功能和功能，并花点时间才能理解用户如何通过解决方案来完成任务的背景。什么触发他们去你的网站？是每月通讯，促销邮箱，社交岗位中的链接，还是广告？他们与您的产品互动时，他们经历的阶段是什么？这些上下文中的每一个都可以与不同的用户期望相关联。识别：
- Customers’ expectations for each of these contexts
- Customers’ information needs at every step of their journeys
- Devices or channels that customers choose in each of these different contexts and at different stages
An important part of designing for the customer journey is tounderstand and eliminate common reasons for contact.与您的客户支持团队密切合作，以确定收到的最常见的投诉和问题。请勿忽视任何联系方式，请发送电话，电子邮件，在线聊天或社交媒体。然后将注意力集中在解决导致这些常见问题的根问题。在整个用户之旅中了解信息需求，并确保通过重新加工令人困惑的内容或创建新内容来正确解决它们。确定和消除重点客户旅程的障碍和费力的渠道过渡。
最小化客户呼叫的简单方法是不提供电话号码或其他联系信息。不要这样做。减少客户服务的需求并不意味着消除客户服务。In fact, since you can’t possibly plan and design for every situation in which someone may want to speak with a representative, make it easy for your customers to contact your organization at any step in the journey. Some of the most frustrated users in our research were those who needed to contact an organization and could not do so. Some companies’ contact information was inexistent or very difficult to find, so people thought that the company was trying to avoid being contacted entirely. In these situations, customers resorted to Google or social channels to find contact information for the organization. And the organization lost their trust — a one-way ticket to the sand below the信任金字塔that had probably taken the company’s brand team years to build.
Make transitions to a contact channel seamless.If you provide a path to contact, make this transition as effortless as possible. Take advantage of technology and device capabilities to do so. Whenever your organization sends a customer to another channel, ask yourself what the next step will be and how you can make it easier.
Provide multiple options for contacting customer service.每个客户问题都有自己独特的情况，背景和紧迫程度，因此不要强迫所有用户在同一路径上联系您的组织。为人们提供所需的灵活性和信息级别，以便选择最适合其情况的联系渠道。
One participant in our study had a simple question for his auto maker, Nissan. He chose to chat with a Nissan support agent via Nissan’s mobile website because he was riding the bus on his way home from work and it would have been difficult to have a phone conversation on the noisy bus. If Nissan had only provided a customer-service hotline number, he would have had to wait until he got home from work and navigate his way through a call tree to get a very simple question answered.
We discuss how to research customer journey and more concrete tips for minimizing the need for customer service in our full-day courseOmnichannel旅程和客户体验。