当品牌和组织通过向全球市场扩张来寻求增长时,他们可能会发现他们的数码产品没有国内市场那么受欢迎。

Beyond marketing factors, one frequent cause is that their websites and apps are initially developed for and tested within a local demographical profile. What has been working well for that domestic group可能对来自不同文化背景的人们没有任何意义. 这就是为什么设计师必须为全球受众修改产品,并用目标受众进行测试以验证修改。

两种适应

对于具有跨文化观众的数字产品说出不同的语言,有两种适应方法:

  1. Translation意味着接口语言根据目标受众而变化。产品的外观和感觉保持不变;唯一的区别是语言。
  2. 本土化是指使数字产品的设计在文化上与目标受众相关。这种类型的变化往往更引人注目:视觉呈现和内容策略可能完全不同。

These types of adaptation are two ends of a spectrum of possible approaches to cultural differences: a product can fall anywhere on this spectrum.

For example, the New Zealand fashion brand Shekou Woman offered various language options on its website. For each language, the visual design and content stayed the same: only the language changed. Shekou is an example of a translation-only approach to dealing with diverse audiences.

Shekouwoman.com本网站允许用户从多种语言中进行选择;UI对不同语言保持不变。英文版(顶部)与中文版(底部)几乎相同。

相比之下,澳大利亚药房网站在线药房向中文和英语的访客显示了不同的设计。导航,信息架构,视觉设计和促销产品都不同。

Pharmacyonline.com.au。英文版(顶部)和中文版(底部)具有不同的信息架构,视觉设计和内容演示。本网站完全本地化。例如,中文版改编了英雄形象庆祝假期(牛的年份)这是在拍摄此屏幕截图时在中国的一项重大事件。

许多其他数字产品处于本地化和翻译之间的中间地带,在一定程度上对其内容和视觉表现进行了裁剪。

例如,H&M的中美版本具有类似的外观和觉得:他们使用了相同的信息架构和视觉设计。但是,中文版强调农历新年销售上all its banner pictures and used Asian models; the US version promoted a special collection with local models.

H&M网站使用了平移和本地化。美国(左)和中文(右)版本看起来相似,但模型和销售活动是本地化的。美国设计促进了一个新的特别系列,而中国人强调中国新年销售。

Ideally, you should have a culturally specific version for every country or region you provide services for; this approach is pretty typical for big global companies. For each version, the localization level depends on how people with the respective cultural background differ from domestic users.

尽管如此,有时对每个文化的本地设计是不可行,有价值的,甚至是必要的,特别是对于较小的企业。在这种情况下,产品或服务主要依赖于翻译并简单地提供多种语言选项。

There isn’t a one-for-all solution when you modify your design for global audiences. Next, we discuss some key factors you should consider to decide where your product should sit on this spectrum.

影响跨文化设计的因素

对于针对国际受众的特定数字产品,您必须决定将产品量身定制到来自不同文化背景的用户。

以下是一些因素需要考虑:

  • 异质性水平你的目标受众
  • General cultural differences在你的目标受众和国内用户之间
  • 文化因素会影响用户行为和产品支持的任务
  • The brand image你想建立
  • The potential valueof your target market

The Heterogeneity Level of Your Target Audiences

首先,确定不同文化的细分市场及其百分比,尤其是当你的用户分散在世界各地时。

If, like H&M, you already have culturally specific versions of your products, you’re getting a head start. However, if so far you’ve only relied on translations, it’s time to assess how culturally diverse your audience groups are. Even people using the same language may not be culturally homogenous. Users in France and in Quebec, Canada may both use the French version of your site, but they belong to different cultural groups and their behavior patterns may differ.

Apple.com:法国版本法国(left) andCanada(右)共享相同的语言,但是他们的content and promotions were totally different. (Compared to the France version, the Canada version was culturally closer tothe Canadian English version。)

在你的听众所说的每种语言中,定义:(1)是否有任何文化上不同的亚群体(2) 这些小团体有多大。

如果这些子组都没有达到普遍受众的相当大,那么大多数依赖于翻译,以应对那种语言的用户。如果一个子组是您的总观众的大部分部分,那么考虑为该群组创建一个本地化的文化特定的网站。

(For relatively smaller subgroups speaking the same language with your dominant users but from a different cultural background, offer a translated, culturally neutral ‘International’ version if possible. If that’s not feasible, stating the culturally specific content clearly, like promotions only for visitors from certain areas, can prevent minorities from misunderstanding.)

例如,令人诉诸韩国化妆品牌和时尚品牌的款式提供国际运输,允许世界各地的购物者在其网站上下订单。但是,它只提供了5种语言:韩语,英语,简体中文,繁体中文和日语。来自欧洲,非洲和北美的购物者都必须使用英文版。Stylenanda的英文网站没有向其中任何受众定制,因为为全世界所有英语扬声器设计多个文化特定版本,这将是过于昂贵和复杂的,特别是如果大多数公司的收入来自亚洲购买者。

In contrast, its Simplified Chinese version offered a special在线聊天功能在任何其他版本上没有使用,使用热门的中文即时消息服务QQ。此功能是由于购物者使用简体中文版的相对均匀性。

Stylenanda.com. The English version (middle) was a translation of the Korean version (top), with no additional localization, because of the high heterogeneity of English-speaking shoppers. The Simplified Chinese version (bottom) offered a culturally specific online chat feature based on an IM service popular in China.

一般文化差异

在您从目标受众中识别出一个文化上同质的用户组并考虑修改您的设计之后,您需要分析他们与您的国内用户和其他目标文化有多大的不同。

这种分析有许多可能的方法。一个是基于Hofstede的文化维度理论,它定义了6个不同国家和文化群体的尺寸。他们是:

  • Power distance:在国内预期和接受该国内的机构和组织的强大成员的程度,不平衡。
  • Individualism vs. collectivism: Whether people put more weight on the interests of the individual (individualists) or on the the interests of the group (collectivists).
  • Masculinity vs. femininity: Whether strong, very different emotion stereotypes are associated with traditional genders (masculine societies) or emotions are allowed to overlap across genders (feminine societies).
  • Uncertainty avoidance:文化成员的程度被含糊不清或未知的情况感到威胁。
  • Long-term vs. short-term orientation:Whether the society fosters virtues such as perseverance or thrift, oriented towards future rewards (long-term orientation) or virtues related to the past and the present.
  • 放纵与克制:对享受生活和乐趣的态度,从自由满足人类欲望(放纵)与严格的社会规范(克制)相媲美。

You can use a comparison tool such as the one provided by霍夫斯泰德洞察找出两个国家的不同之处。例如,我们可以了解到,澳大利亚和美国在所有6个维度上都比较相似,而日本和美国在这6个维度上的得分不同individualism,uncertainty avoidance,and长期定位。

According to Hofstede Insights, the cultural differences between Australia and the United States (top) should be smaller than those between Japan and the United States (bottom).

Another possible way of identifying cultural differences is through the theory ofhigh-context vs. low-context cultures,由人类学家爱德华T。大厅。霍尔认为,来自高语境文化的人更喜欢面对面交流,在交流过程中寻找不太直接的语言和更微妙的非语言线索。各种媒体格式的高信息密度是高语境文化(如中文和日语)的首选。相比之下,来自低语境文化(如美国和斯堪的纳维亚国家)的人在交流过程中依赖直接、明确的言语暗示。

无论您如何用来了解您所设计的文化,noticeable cultural differences indicate the necessity of localizing the design.However, only looking at the general cultural differences is not enough; learning how cultural differences may impact your target audience's use of your offerings is vital.

Cultural Differences on Product Usage

虽然存在文化差异,但它们并不影响人们如何与数字产品互动。

Some factors are listed below for you to consider:

  • 频率.How frequently does your target audience use your product? The lower the frequency of use, the less localized the product has to be. However, if your product completely violates a local mental model and people use it rarely, there’s a high chance that they will make the same mistake again and again, in the few instances when they use it.
  • 语境.您的目标用户在哪里以及如何使用您的产品?例如,他们是否仅在计算机上使用您的网站,或者他们需要在移动设备上查看它?人们使用您的产品或服务的背景越复杂,设计的本地化也是如此。
  • 人际合作.进行A.task analysisand learn how users achieve their primary goals. Does the task involve collaboration and communication between multiple users? If that’s the case, localized designs are more likely to be helpful since cultural differences can impact organization structures and hierarchies. For instance, an educational game designed to facilitate teaching may need more localized components than a time-killing single-person mobile game. The former involves more engagement of multiple roles.
  • 本地竞争对手与您的竞争对手有何不同.进行竞争对手分析或观察目标受众如何使用类似您的产品。分析您的产品与竞争对手之间的差异,看看它们是文化特定的,揭示文化思想模型用于共同交互模式。例如,在我们的电子商务研究期间,我们观察到印度和中国被要求退房时的人民首选的一次性密码。电子邮件注册不受欢迎。在中国,通过像支付宝一样登录第三方平台和WeChat也很受欢迎。当中国参与者看到一个英国葡萄牙电子商务网站,Farfetch,通过微信支持注册时,他非常惊讶。“这真是太棒了方便。我有我的手机号码和关于微信的个人信息。如果我用它来登录,那么有很多信息我不需要手动填写。“
中文版的英国葡萄牙语 时尚零售商Farfetch.com允许用户使用微信(屏幕截图中的绿色按钮)登录,这在可用性测试中给参与者留下了深刻印象。

一般而言,您的产品或服务越多,日常生活越多,您的设计就越庞大.因此,决定您的设计应该是如何或哪些组件需要本地化需要了解不同文化背景的人们如何在日常生活中使用您的产品。

Branding

决定您的产品的定位也应该受到影响你的品牌.Designs can evoke emotional responses. 这些情绪反应有助于人们评价你的产品,并对你的品牌形成印象。有时候,让你的产品看起来有点异国情调并不坏——如果人们知道你是外国人,这有助于树立你的品牌形象。

例如,当中国参与者在我们的研究期间浏览中文版本的Bose网站时,他将其描述为“高端网站,就像那些出售豪华产品的外国品牌”。他不想在这个网站上购买,因为与淘宝和JD这样的中国零售商相比,信息密度非常低。

不过,该网站也没有提供任何购买选择;它只是将人们重定向到授权的第三方商店,比如京东官方的Bose商店。如果说中国百色网站背后的意图是打造豪华的品牌形象,而不是销售产品,那么这对这位参与者是有帮助的:根据他的经历,他认为百色是一个豪华品牌。

A product-detailed page on the Chinese version of Bose.com (left) vs. the official Bose shop on JD.com (right): The former had much lower information density and created a luxurious brand image; the latter, with a higher information density, was more familiar to Chinese online shoppers, and they were more likely to make purchases there.

另一方面,本地化组件可以使人们信任您的产品或服务,因为它表明您花了时间了解它们。

For example, another middle-aged female participant commented on the QR code featured on an Australian pharmacy website, Amcal+. “I can follow them on WeChat and get to know their deals more quickly. This increases the credibility of this website.”

Amcal.com.au. A localized component, the QR-code of the company’s official WeChat account, made a participant trust the site.

The Potential Value of the Target Market

你需要考虑的最后一个也是最重要的因素是目标市场的潜在价值。本地化您的设计成本不仅仅是翻译。它需要研究人员、设计师、内容作者、开发人员,甚至营销团队之间的承诺和沟通。

计算ROIof the localization effort is crucial before deciding to localize a product instead of just hiring a translator and translating all the content. Also, prioritizing the localized components you want to add is vital. A用户体验路线图可以帮助您优先考虑,计划和协调研究,设计和开发工作。

Test with Your Target Audience

尽管你可能已经了解了很多你想要设计的文化,你仍然需要记住这一点you’re not the user!

At the beginning of designing a cross-cultural product, conductfield studies,就像contextual inquiries,with your target users. These studies can identify the role of your products or services in people’s daily lives. Observing the environment and context of use for your products and its local competitors can uncover cultural differences and potential localization directions.

一旦您准备好了产品(或原型),就可以使用国际受众进行可用性测试,也可以非常有用。结合时采访,国际可用性测试可以识别基本可用性问题和cultural-specific practices,期望和心理模型。

All in all,如果一个设计很难使用,那么它看起来有多本地化并不重要。作为一个在国际网站上购物的中国参与者,“视觉风格无关紧要。易用性是关键。如果我的购物体验不好,它看起来漂亮与否并不重要。

跨文化UX设计提示

刚刚开始向全球市场扩张的组织可能希望建立国际影响力,但可能缺乏资源为他们所到达的每个地区创建特定版本。那样的话,你可能得从minimal international versions. 尝试以下技巧:

  • Provide specific language versionsthat cover as many of your international audiences as possible. In the beginning, rely mostly on translation instead of localization.
  • Cut down culturally specific elements避免可能的混乱和挫折感。遵循通用UX约定。Use imagery to help shoppers navigate on ecommerce sites,for instance.
  • 最有价值的市场分析and consider a design that is localized for that segment first.

在为具有不同于您的文化背景的大量目标受众进行设计时,请遵循以下步骤:

  • Understand the general cultural differences.Identify the ones most relevant to your products. Based on these general differences, write down questions and assumptions to examine in subsequent research activities.
  • 确定文化差异如何影响用户的互动with your products in context. Use field studies,日记研究,以及竞争对手分析,以确定您的目标受众在使用您的产品时可能参与的特定文化实践。
  • 确定这些产品组件that would benefit most from localization and prioritize them for localization. Use a combination of research data, brand-image goals, and ROI to single out those features.
  • 早期测试并经常测试。Conduct usability testing with your target audience. Depending on the size of your target market, establish a professional local usability team if necessary.

参考

Geert Hofstede,Gert Jan Hofstede和Michael Minkov。2010年。Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind(3。ed。)。麦克劳山。

爱德华T。大厅。1976Beyond culture. 锚定。