当品牌和组织通过扩展到全球市场而寻求增长时,他们可能会发现他们的数字产品并不像国内市场那样受欢迎。

除了营销因素之外,一个常旅客的原因是他们的网站和应用程序最初在当地人口统计概况中开发和测试。对于国内集团来说,这一点是什么may not make any sense to people from a different cultural background。这就是为什么设计师必须为全球受众修改产品并与目标受众进行测试以验证修改的原因。

Two Types of Adaptation

For digital products with crosscultural audiences speaking different languages, there are two adaptation approaches:

  1. 翻译means that the interface language changes depending on the target audience. The look and feel of the product stays the same; the only difference is the language.
  2. Localization指的是制定与目标受众文化相关的数字产品的设计。这种类型的变化往往更加戏剧:视觉演示和内容策略可以完全不同。

这些类型的适应是一种可能的文化差异方法的两端:产品可以落在该光谱上的任何地方。

例如,新西兰时尚品牌Shekou女子在其网站上提供了各种语言选项。对于每种语言,视觉设计和内容保持不变:只有语言更改。Shekou是一个仅用于处理多样化的受众的方式的例子。

Shekouwoman.com本网站允许用户从多种语言中进行选择;UI对不同语言保持不变。英文版(顶部)与中文版(底部)几乎相同。

In contrast, Pharmacy Online, an Australian pharmacy website, showed different designs to its Chinese and English-speaking visitors. The navigation, information architecture, visual design, and promoted products were all different.

Pharmacyonline.com.au。英文版(顶部)和中文版(底部)具有不同的信息架构,视觉设计和内容演示。本网站完全本地化。例如,中文版改编了英雄形象庆祝假期(the Year of the Ox) that was a major event in China at the time this screenshot was taken.

许多其他数码产品在本地化和翻译之间的中间地上落在中间地上,定制了他们的内容和视觉演示到一定程度。

例如,H&M的中美版本具有类似的外观和觉得:他们使用了相同的信息架构和视觉设计。但是,中文版强调农历新年销售在所有横幅图片和使用的亚洲模型;美国版本推广了一个特殊的集合,与本地模型。

The H&M website used both translation and localization. The US (left) and Chinese (right) versions looked similar, but the models and sale events were localized. The American design promoted a new special collection, while the Chinese one emphasized Chinese New Year sales.

理想情况下,您应该为您提供服务的每个国家或地区都有一个文化特定的版本;这种方法对于大全球公司来说非常典型。对于每个版本,本地化级别取决于各自的文化背景的人们如何与家庭用户不同。

Still, sometimes it’s not feasible, worthwhile, or even necessary to have local designs for every culture, especially for smaller businesses. In this case, products or services rely mostly on translation and simply offer multiple language options.

当您修改全球受众的设计时,没有一个唯一的解决方案。接下来,我们讨论一些关键因素,您应该考虑决定在您的产品应坐在此频谱上的位置。

影响跨文化设计的因素

For a specific digital product targeting international audiences, you must decide how much to tailor the products to users from different cultural backgrounds.

Here are some factors to consider:

  • The heterogeneity levelof your target audiences
  • General cultural differences在目标受众和家庭用户之间
  • How much cultural factors impact user behavior and the tasks supported by your product
  • 品牌形象你想建立
  • 潜在价值你的目标市场

The Heterogeneity Level of Your Target Audiences

首先,识别文化独特的细分和百分比,特别是当您的用户分散在世界各地时。

如果像H&M一样,您已经拥有了文化特定的产品版本,您将获得一个头部开始。但是,如果到目前为止,您只依靠翻译,是时候评估了您的观众群体的文化多样化。甚至使用相同语言的人也可能不在文化上均匀。法国和魁北克的用户可以兼顾您网站的法国版,但它们属于不同的文化群体,其行为模式可能不同。

Apple.com:法国版本France(left) and加拿大(右)共享相同的语言,但他们的内容和促销活动完全不同。(与法国版相比,加拿大版本在文化上更接近加拿大英文版。)

在受众中所说的每种语言中,定义:(1)如果有任何文化不同的子组;(2)这些亚组有多大。

如果这些子组都没有达到普遍受众的相当大,那么大多数依赖于翻译,以应对那种语言的用户。如果一个子组是您的总观众的大部分部分,那么考虑为该群组创建一个本地化的文化特定的网站。

(For relatively smaller subgroups speaking the same language with your dominant users but from a different cultural background, offer a translated, culturally neutral ‘International’ version if possible. If that’s not feasible, stating the culturally specific content clearly, like promotions only for visitors from certain areas, can prevent minorities from misunderstanding.)

例如,令人诉诸韩国化妆品牌和时尚品牌的款式提供国际运输,允许世界各地的购物者在其网站上下订单。但是,它只提供了5种语言:韩语,英语,简体中文,繁体中文和日语。来自欧洲,非洲和北美的购物者都必须使用英文版。Stylenanda的英文网站没有向其中任何受众定制,因为为全世界所有英语扬声器设计多个文化特定版本,这将是过于昂贵和复杂的,特别是如果大多数公司的收入来自亚洲购买者。

In contrast, its Simplified Chinese version offered a special在线聊天功能在任何其他版本上没有使用,使用热门的中文即时消息服务QQ。此功能是由于购物者使用简体中文版的相对均匀性。

Stylenanda.com. The English version (middle) was a translation of the Korean version (top), with no additional localization, because of the high heterogeneity of English-speaking shoppers. The Simplified Chinese version (bottom) offered a culturally specific online chat feature based on an IM service popular in China.

一般文化差异

在从目标受众中识别文化同类用户组并考虑修改您的设计后,您需要分析他们从国内用户和其他文化的不同程度。

There are many possible approaches to this analysis. One is based on Hofstede’s cultural-dimensions theory, which defines 6 dimensions on which different national and cultural groups differentiate most. They are:

  • Power distance: The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
  • Individualism vs. collectivism:人们是否对个人(个人主义者)或本集团(集体主义者)的利益提供更多重量。
  • Masculinity vs. femininity: Whether strong, very different emotion stereotypes are associated with traditional genders (masculine societies) or emotions are allowed to overlap across genders (feminine societies).
  • Uncertainty avoidance:文化成员的程度被含糊不清或未知的情况感到威胁。
  • 长期与短期定位:Whether the society fosters virtues such as perseverance or thrift, oriented towards future rewards (long-term orientation) or virtues related to the past and the present.
  • Indulgence vs. restraint:对享受生活和乐趣的态度,从自由满足人类欲望(放纵)与严格的社会规范(克制)相媲美。

You can use a comparison tool such as the one provided byHofstede见解弄清楚两个国家如何不同。例如,我们可以了解澳大利亚和美国在所有6个维度方面相对相似,而日本和美国的比分不同individualismuncertainty avoidance, 和长期方向。

根据霍夫斯泰德的见解,the cultural differences between Australia and the United States (top) should be smaller than those between Japan and the United States (bottom).

识别文化差异的另一种可能的方法是通过理论高中与低语境文化,由人类学家Edward T. Hall提出。霍尔认为,来自高中文化的人们更喜欢面对面的沟通,并在通信期间寻找较少直接的口头和副专题非语言线索。各种媒体格式的高信息密度是中国和日语等高中文化的优选。相比之下,来自低语境文化的人(如美国和斯堪的纳维亚国家)依靠沟通期间直接明确的口头线索。

无论您如何用来了解您所设计的文化,noticeable cultural differences indicate the necessity of localizing the design。但是,只看一般的文化差异是不够的;学习文化差异如何影响您的目标受众的使用是至关重要的。

产品用法的文化差异

虽然存在文化差异,但它们并不影响人们如何与数字产品互动。

下面列出了一些因素供您考虑:

  • 频率。How frequently does your target audience use your product? The lower the frequency of use, the less localized the product has to be. However, if your product completely violates a local mental model and people use it rarely, there’s a high chance that they will make the same mistake again and again, in the few instances when they use it.
  • 语境。您的目标用户在哪里以及如何使用您的产品?例如,他们是否仅在计算机上使用您的网站,或者他们需要在移动设备上查看它?人们使用您的产品或服务的背景越复杂,设计的本地化也是如此。
  • Interpersonal cooperation。Conduct a任务分析and learn how users achieve their primary goals. Does the task involve collaboration and communication between multiple users? If that’s the case, localized designs are more likely to be helpful since cultural differences can impact organization structures and hierarchies. For instance, an educational game designed to facilitate teaching may need more localized components than a time-killing single-person mobile game. The former involves more engagement of multiple roles.
  • 本地竞争对手如何与您的不同。进行竞争对手分析或观察目标受众如何使用类似您的产品。分析您的产品与竞争对手之间的差异,看看它们是文化特定的,揭示文化心理模型用于共同交互模式。例如,在我们的电子商务研究期间,我们观察到印度和中国被要求退房时的人民首选的一次性密码。电子邮件注册不受欢迎。在中国,通过像支付宝一样登录第三方平台和微信was also very popular. When a Chinese participant saw that a British-Portuguese ecommerce website, Farfetch, supported registration through WeChat, he was pretty amazed. “That’s wonderful and convenient. I have my mobile phone number and personal information on WeChat. If I use it to log in, there’s so much information I don’t need to fill in manually.”
中文版的英国葡萄牙语 Fashion Retailer Farfetch.com允许用户使用微信(屏幕截图中的绿色按钮)登录,这在可用性测试期间留下了一个参与者。

一般而言,您的产品或服务越多,日常生活越多,您的设计就越庞大。因此,决定您的设计应该是如何或哪些组件需要本地化需要了解不同文化背景的人们如何在日常生活中使用您的产品。

品牌

Deciding how localized your product should be also influenced by你的品牌Designs can evoke emotional responses。那些情绪反应有助于人们评估您的产品,并对您的品牌构成印象。有时,让您的产品看起来有点异国情调并不差 - 如果人们知道你是外国的话,它可以建立品牌形象。

For instance, when a Chinese participant browsed the Chinese version of the Bose website during our study, he described it as a “high-end website, like those foreign brands selling luxurious products.” He didn’t want to make purchases on this website because the information density was very low compared with other Chinese retailers like Taobao and JD.

但是,该网站也没有提供任何购买选项;它只将人们重定向到授权的第三方商店,就像JD.com上的官方Bose Shop。如果中国博士网站背后的意图是创造豪华的品牌形象而不是卖产品,它为这位参与者工作了:在他的经验之后,他相信Bose是一个奢侈品牌。

一种product-detailed page on the Chinese version of Bose.com (left) vs. the official Bose shop on JD.com (right): The former had much lower information density and created a luxurious brand image; the latter, with a higher information density, was more familiar to Chinese online shoppers, and they were more likely to make purchases there.

另一方面,本地化组件可以使人们信任您的产品或服务,因为它表明您花了时间学习它们。

For example, another middle-aged female participant commented on the QR code featured on an Australian pharmacy website, Amcal+. “I can follow them on WeChat and get to know their deals more quickly. This increases the credibility of this website.”

一种mcal.com.au. A localized component, the QR-code of the company’s official WeChat account, made a participant trust the site.

The Potential Value of the Target Market

您需要考虑的最后一个但最重要的因素是目标市场的潜在价值。Localizing your design costs much more than mere translation.它需要研究人员,设计师,内容作家,开发人员甚至营销团队之间的承诺和沟通。

计算ROI在决定本地化产品之前,本地化工作是至关重要的,而不是仅雇用翻译并翻译所有内容。此外,优先考虑要添加的本地化组件至关重要。一种UX路线图can help you prioritize, plan, and coordinate the research, design, and development efforts.

用您的目标受众进行测试

即使您可能已经了解了您想要设计的文化,您仍然需要记住这一点你不是用户!!

在设计跨文化产品的开始时,进行实地研究, 喜欢上文查询那with your target users. These studies can identify the role of your products or services in people’s daily lives. Observing the environment and context of use for your products and its local competitors can uncover cultural differences and potential localization directions.

Once you have your products (or prototypes) ready, conducting usability testing with international audiences can be very useful, as well. When combined with采访国际可用性测试can identify fundamental usability issues andcultural-specific practices那expectations, and mental models.

一种ll in all,如果难以使用,那么本地化设计如何看起来并不重要。一种s a Chinese participant who shopped at international sites a lot stated, “The visual style doesn’t matter that much. The ease of use is the key.如果我的购物体验很糟糕,那么如果它看起来很漂亮并不重要。

Tips for Crosscultural UX Design

刚刚开始扩展到全球市场的组织可能希望建立国际影响,但可能缺乏为他们所达成的每个地区创建特定版本的资源。在这种情况下,您可能必须从中开始最小的国际版本。尝试以下技术:

  • 提供特定语言版本that cover as many of your international audiences as possible. In the beginning, rely mostly on translation instead of localization.
  • Cut down culturally specific elements避免可能的混乱和挫折感。遵循通用UX约定。使用图像来帮助购物者在电子商务网站上导航那for instance.
  • 分析最有价值的3月ketand consider a design that is localized for that segment first.

在使用与您的不同文化背景的文化背景设计时设计相当大的目标受众,请按照以下步骤操作:

  • 了解一般文化差异。Identify the ones most relevant to your products. Based on these general differences, write down questions and assumptions to examine in subsequent research activities.
  • 确定文化差异如何影响用户的互动with your products in context. Use field studies,日记研究而竞争对手分析识别文化具体实践您的目标受众可能会在使用您的产品时参与。
  • Identify those product componentsthat would benefit most from localization and prioritize them for localization. Use a combination of research data, brand-image goals, and ROI to single out those features.
  • Test early and test often.Conduct usability testing with your target audience. Depending on the size of your target market, establish a professional local usability team if necessary.

References

Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, and Michael Minkov. 2010.Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind(3。ed。)。麦克劳山。

爱德华霍尔。1976年。Beyond culture。锚。