伪造在中国并不罕见。因此,中国网络购物者的主要关注点确保他们在线看到的产品是真实的。一些中国在线市场被认为包含假产品,以及过去的消极体验 - 这些假货 - 墨盒不会持续或不完全打印正确的颜色 - 导致消费者在网上购物时要额外的警惕。

这种守卫是由限制性的中文退货政策加剧。罕见的是卖家将收回一个产品,“没有问题。”购买的中国消费者往往会选择吸收成本并将其视为课程,而不是尝试麻烦的回报过程。

我们在中国进行的最新一轮可用性研究的参与者展示了对假货的认识提高,并且在研究各种产品和服务时,正在寻找真实性和可靠性的标记。

Especially when makingB2B购买(这往往比B2C购买更昂贵,影响更多人),中国在线购物者关注该组织出现的可信度。没有人希望负责购买不起作用的东西!过去的经验与假货的经验导致,我们的中国学习参与者在在线研究项目时趋于非常持怀疑态度。假冒产品是司空见惯,公司如何证明自己是真实的和高质量的?

本文提出了与衡量可信度和建立真实性相关的结果,从我们最近的中国侧重于B2B购买。

Professional, Official, and Localized

设计质量始终是A的第一个指标值得信赖的组织, regardless of culture and region. First impressions matter! Visitors reaching a website judge whether they can trust the site based on the landing page’s appearance: Is the information well organized? Does the design use high-quality images and a professional color scheme? Our study participants in China exhibited this same assessment of design quality we’ve seen in countless past studies in many countries.

但是,与之倾向于首先使用一般搜索引擎的西方用户,与西方用户不同,参与者通常开始搜索淘宝网或JD.com的在线市场上的产品或服务。在罕见的案例中转向一般搜索​​引擎以寻找特定的已知品牌,参与者寻求查找官方网站of that brand, often including the phrase “official website” in their search query. Popular search engines Baidu and Qihoo 360 both display an “official website” indicator on search-results pages, and users in our study relied on this to choose where to navigate. For目的是, we recommend including this phrase in plain text (官网) in your Chinese homepage’s meta title. Additionally, ensure your company name is apparent in thedomain of your URL, as this acts as another distinguishing element to identify the true official site.

来自Qihoo 360的SERP显示官方网站视觉指示器
参与者经常包括“官方网站”短语(“ 官网”) in their search queries, and relied on the search engine’s official-website indicator to determine which result was the correct one. The green indicator to the right of the third result link is the official-website indicator on Qihoo 360, distinguishing the real website from another site with a similar URL presented as the fourth result.

Getting people to the official website is just the first step. Once they are there, you still must ensure that the landing page is clear and professional — and don’t forget the details!精心设计的网站可以由一个不良的元素破坏。For example, one participant in our study initially liked the Azure homepage, and was intrigued by a banner promoting a sale and trial on cloud services. He started to watch the accompanying video on that detail page, but abandoned it when he felt it wasn’t very professional. “The voice is so lazy and not attractive. And so much noise in the background. The video is not professional. I think they should do better.“由于人们negativity bias,这种令人失望的经历来强调他对该网站设计的初步积极看法。不幸的是,负面看法不仅限于违规的元素,而且倾向于整体扩展到组织:一种称为的现象光环效应

详细信息页面与video on azure网站
此Azure云服务解决方案页面上的部署导向视频被认为是低质量,并使用户留下了糟糕的服务。如背景噪声和其他生产方面的详细信息可能会降低专业视频似乎。

Once disillusioned, people often exhibit a confirmation bias and continue to notice additional elements that strengthen their negative viewpoint. On the Azure website, after he stopped the substandard video, the participant pointed out that promoting 60% off the service was not typical in Chinese markets, but rather is the “Western style” of promoting a sale. In China, promotions usually state the percentage of the full price you would pay, rather than the amount of the discount. “对于中国市场,我认为它们应该将这种西方风格[60%折扣]变为40%。

Azure主页横幅广告60%折扣
一旦一个网站失望,用户通常会继续找到其他问题以确认他们的负面感知。在这个横幅上,一个用户指出,促进百分比折扣是“西方方式”,而不是中国市场预期的看法。

Lack oflocalized contentwill be obvious to users in that region. Merely translating into the appropriate language is not enough; users will notice that the site — and entire organization — does not match the conventions of the region and will not trust purchasing its products or services.

Regional Presence and Previous Customers

B2B组织的知名信誉因素是demonstrating a presence in that particular region。毫不奇怪,在这项研究中再次发现这一发现。

Several participants in our study looked for proof of a local presence such as whether the organization listed physical stores in that area or local distributors that they could work with. This physical, nearby presence made the organization feel tangible, and allowed people to do business in person rather than online if they preferred. Participants felt that, in case of any issues with the product or service, a local contact would make it simpler to hold the business accountable.

我想看看物理商店是否远。如果它太远了,我会在线订购,但如果不是,我想在现实生活中看到它。我总是担心,如果在线订购的产品不是我们想要的型号,返回是不方便的。

可能很难与这些外国品牌沟通,但如果您有当地经销商联系 - 特别是由品牌的官方网站认证 - 这是最好的。

Just having the possibility to see products in person made the organization immediately feel more trustworthy and authentic. Participants commented that they trusted those products would be real, not fakes. Additionally, a local presence implicitly demonstrates familiarity with local business practices, laws, codes, and any other specific needs of that market. A foreign brand without any physical local presence has to work much harder to prove that it understands the local market.

除了物理位置,学习参与者是否考虑了当地专业知识的其他指标,如photos, case studies, or testimonials from past or current customersdisplayed on the website. Many people in China avoid being the first to try something new — it is better to wait and see whether it works for others. Ideally, featured examples should be specific to the region, but, when that was not the case, participants were satisfied when enough detail about past work in similar markets was presented. For this goal, photos reigned supreme: Participants appreciated seeing numerous pictures of the real products, or before and after photos of projects. Trust also increased when the company logo was visible on the products shown in the images, as one participant pointed out when researching a manhole-cover supplier:

Those pictures are really their products, and they also show the previous [client] projects [where the manhole covers were used]. I can trust them because they have actually done these similar projects before.

详细信息页面包含许多产品中的照片
参与者尊重看到真正的工作照片使用组织的产品完成或展示该服务。这种长详细信息页面(缩小视图,左侧)显示了各种项目中使用的产品的许多照片。诸如能够看到本产品的公司徽标等细节使图像似乎是真实的。

在中国,这是普遍的提供以前客户的联系信息在网站上。参与者表示,他们会直接致电这些客户来询问他们的问题并确保其推荐的准确性。“I need to know what they have done. I could contact the previous customer and ask about the details of this vendor.” If providing client contact information isn’t possible, then be sure to include even more photos or videos detailing the work. Themore details you can provide, the more authentic the information appears。At the very least, a display of logos from client companies can demonstrate past experience as well as longevity — depending on the number of clients presented.

Online Chat Is Critical

我们的8位参与者中有5名在研究各种产品和服务的同时寻求并从事在线聊天。联系客服被视为商业客户研究流程的标准部分,参与者经常要求折扣(因为他们将为他们的公司购买),询问有任何隐藏的税收或发票费用,以及 - 如果他们是感到警惕 -具体询问是否物品是真实的

Communicating via an online-chat feature is common behavior in China, and participantspreferred online chatting to calling a phone number。一位参与者解释说,在线聊天让她准备她想要问的问题,并且她和客户服务代理都有足够的时间来调整他们的语气 - 手机上的天赋并不总是可用的。此次准备提出问题的做法是由另一名参与者呼应,他们首选在线聊天,因为他经常需要询问和,可能会记住答案的技术问题。

Indeed, one of the big advantages of online chat is that itprovides users with the chat log, which not only can help people later refer to the information provided (acting, in effect, as a form ofexternal memory)但是,正如若干参与者所指出的那样,如果他们需要在未来谈判价格或退回产品,也可以作为对话的记录。参与者也意识到聊天历史强制组织从客户服务提供仔细措辞的答复。例如,一个参与者在线聊天淘宝直接询问销售的替代墨盒是否是真实的,但服务人员们脚尖贴在主题周围并躲避回答他的问题,所以他评论了:“他们不敢承诺真实性。他们继续避免它。“虽然公司对保证墨水墨盒有足够的墨水,但这种逃避使他得出结论,产品必须伪造,他不会从那些卖方购买它们。

Conclusion

与预期购买者建立信任并传达信誉在所有国家都至关重要,但它们对某些市场来说更为重要,如我们在中国的研究所展示。由于他们提高了对造假者的认识,中国商店在网上购买产品和研究服务时,中国购物者往往非常持怀疑态度,谨慎态度 - 比美国或欧洲的在线购物者更进一步。虽然很多可信度策略是普遍的,一些细节因文化而异or are relatively more important in certain cultures. This is why we always recommend conductinginternational usability research补充全球用户行为所知的内容。为了让警惕的中国观众信任一个网站足够承诺购买,必须采取特别小心来展示当地的知识,通过在线聊天来回回答问题的知识。

我们愿意承认Qiaochu contriμbution to this research conducted in China.