在最近对用户体验从业者的调查中，we asked 97 practitioners about their experience with service blueprinting. 本文总结了他们对以下问题的回答：创建和使用服务蓝图最大的挫折是什么？并提供了解决这些困难的策略。
受访者表示令人沮丧，因为获得了他们的服务蓝图倡议的组织承诺，支持和资源 - 特别是：
- Justifying the need for blueprinting
- Motivating others to contribute and care
- Determining method and process ownership
- Aligning on best practices and goals
1. Establish a crossfunctional core team of 2–4 allies.与任何大型计划一样，建立一个核心的盟友团队是至关重要的，该团队将支持该计划，并倡导从研究到工件创建的整个过程。服务蓝图的第一步是找到这种支持团队,which, if it stays engaged and informed, will ensure project and outcome buy-in.
2. Strategically involve individuals who have strong political pull.为了决定组织中的谁应该在团队上，确定将在您想要映射的经验中具有直接角色的业务单位。从那里，优先考虑整个组织众所周知并拥有一些决策的个人，因为这些团队成员可以通过协会带来积极的情绪。
3. Prioritize synchronous collaboration.At the beginning of the project, plan working sessions to bring everyone together and align on completing a single task like determining the scope or the user segment for your blueprint. Coworking sessions, particularly with small teams, bolster collaboration and motivation and make obvious who contributes far too much or too little. Additionally, working meetings can highlight results and build a sense of ownership, especially when the meeting outcome is a tangible artifact. To keep team members engaged outside of working meetings, end each session with action items and aim to spread responsibility.
4. Align on the purpose and goals of the blueprinting initiative before starting work.在深入研究映射过程之前，请确保每个人都知道什么是服务蓝图，什么是服务蓝图benefits your organization will reap from mapping the experience. Some typical benefits include:
- Helping businesses uncover service weaknesses
- Identifying opportunities for optimization
The scope of a blueprint is the focus area or the parameters that the service blueprint covers. Determining focus was a commonly referenced pain point from our survey respondents. We heard that “Scoping the right segment can be frustrating. We sometimes scope the journey too short” and “We’ve made the mistake of going into too much detail for the blueprint and therefore the client has a hard time digesting the information”.
1.专注于您可以控制的范围。为你的第一个晒图倡议,为一个目标easy win by blueprinting a service you have authority over: you, or your immediate peers, should be the primary frontstage, backstage, or support actors. This approach helps for few reasons: (1) presumably, you’ll need to do less research since you already know a lot about the service and may even carry out the actions of interest, (2) you’ll build confidence in the blueprinting process by working on something tangible and close to your everyday role, and (3) you can make immediate changes to the service since you work directly in the scenario you’ve mapped.
2. Target 8–12 customer actions as part of the customer-journey section of the blueprint.To set the stage right, you want to have the right granularity from the start. Aim to have between 8 and12 customer actions across the top of your blueprint. If you have over 15 customer actions, you are likely too specific. If you have fewer than 5, you are probably too general and the blueprint won’t be as informative as it could be. It’s worth noting that this tip does not change the scope of the enclosed journey, but it does change the granularity of the depicted actions. For example, a large-granularity customer action may be ‘pick up prescription’ whereas a low-granularity one may be ‘give pharmacist personal details to look up prescription.’
- The scope covers a content type that is a critical part of the purchase pathway.
If suggested initiatives don’t meet the majority of the criteria, they may not be worth your resources, and energy. Further, if you are acting in a role that serves other internal groups, try openly sharing your team’s criteria for accepting blueprinting requests. This can incentivize other teams to gather research, seek stakeholder support, and invest their own effort before approaching your team with a potential service-blueprinting initiative.
Gathering research data, accessing study participants, and compiling insights were a common frustration amongst practitioners. Respondents said “Gathering enough research takes time and not everyone wants to take that time. “Without research the work is at best a guess” and “Getting the necessary data from the client and then organizing interviews and workshops” is hard and takes time.
1. Split responsibilities with your allies.当你身边有一个核心的盟友团队时，收集内部研究就容易多了。
2. Start with a scope you already have research for to familiarize and build comfort amongst your team and stakeholders with the blueprinting process.然后扩大你的努力-使用第一个蓝图作为案例研究，为下一个蓝图计划所需的研究进行宣传。一旦您在组织中建立了有价值的服务蓝图，人们将更愿意通过数据提供帮助。
3. Start with a hypothesis blueprint.Another option is to create a hypothesis blueprint and document what you know as of now. Then, use that blueprint to identify knowledge gaps, which in turn, can be used to craft a relevant research plan. You can also collaborate with others to refine your hypothesis blueprint — hang it in a hallway or email it to knowledge experts and ask for revisions and feedback based on their expertise.
A handful of survey respondents commented on their frustration of facilitating workshops. We heard a range of pitfalls related to workshop facilitation:
- Maintaining focus for a long time
- Prompting participants to contribute
- Creating a shared visualization on a wall
- Playing the role of facilitator while also contributing
1. Divide and assign facilitator responsibilities.如果您是新的促进，服务蓝图研讨会可能是恐吓。如果您是第一次促进者，请与小组（2-4人）合作。此外，决定您是否会促进或参与;做两者都没有得到建议。
2. Pull in someone from the “outside.”If you’re in need of a facilitator, find someone around your organization that you could swap with — she can facilitate one of your workshops and you can facilitate one of hers. Having facilitators that aren’t immersed in your field of research has its benefits, as they are often free of hidden intents and can focus on their role.
Along the same lines, we heard the common pitfall of not keeping the blueprint updated over time. One respondent mentioned having the ”classic problem of visibility…making sure that it is a living document used by stakeholders over time.”
2. Test your artifact like you test your interface.如果您真的需要一个经过打磨的工件，请与不熟悉它的团队成员分享蓝图的早期版本，并让他们向您解释。如果他们不能理解某些元素或意象，就改变它们（然后再次测试）。
3. Share your blueprint in an engaging way.当需要分享蓝图的时候，考虑与你的盟友团队一起解读（记住尽早并且经常在过程中让利益相关者参与进来，这样工件就不会出人意料了）。考虑到更广泛的受众，不要期望蓝图的每一个浏览者都能接收到每一大块信息。让你的读者容易理解，并以一种清晰但引人入胜的方式突出关键要点。
4. Update the blueprint after each significant service change.服务蓝图需要更新以保持相关和可靠。请务必在伪像本身上包含版本号和上次更新的日期。（我们通常建议将右上角的日期与您的团队名称一起包含。根据您的组织运行的快速，您还可以设置一致的Cadence来更新蓝图。
Lack of organizational understanding and support is at the core of many of these frustrations. Before your next blueprinting initiative, build a crossdisciplinary team that will be there for support. This highly underutilized step will make it easier for you to gather internal research, foster trust and stronger communication on tough decisions, and provide you with a sounding board as you visualize the blueprint. Keeping your team motivated and engaged throughout the initiative can build confidence in the blueprinting process, resulting in new blueprinting evangelists and supporters of service design as a whole.
Service blueprints can be a powerful tool, but before you begin your next initiative, refer to this list of common problems and possible solutions.