I've been reluctant to discuss one of the findings from our眼镜研究因为结论是unethical design pays off

1997年,我选择了suppress a similar finding:用户倾向于点击看起来像对话框的横幅广告,完成假装OKandCancel纽扣。当然,而不是作为一个实际的系统消息 - 例如“您的Internet连接未进行优化” - 横幅只是对话框的图片,然后单击其关闭盒子并不能解雇它,而是将用户带走广告商的网站。欺骗性,不道德和#3之间最讨厌的广告技巧。Still, fake dialog boxes got many more clicks than regular banners, which users had already started toignore in 1997

Can't Hide Usability Findings

在搜索我们的灵魂之后,我现在决定采取不同的方法并发布我们的新发现,尽管他们的道德含义。实际上,不可能抑制研究结果,因为任何困扰如何运行该研究都会得到相同的发现。有没有可用性的秘密any more than there are secrets of astronomy. If you point your telescope at Saturn, you will see that it has rings. And, if you conduct a series of usability studies, you will discover the same insights as we do — assuming you employ the correct methodology.

Many people without a grounding in behavioral user-research principles use bogus methodology and thus get misleading findings.Poor methodology is especially common for eyetracking studies那and thus most published studies in this area are wrong.

For example, unskilled researchers often ask users to simply look at a page, rather than have them encounter it as part of a task flow. Users naturally look at things differently depending on the context. For example, if you want to know how users look at the elements of a form, you can't just present the form on a stand-alone page and ask them to fill it out. Instead, you have to present the form in the context of a meaningful task that they might attempt in the real world. That is, users should encounter the form in response to particular actions, such as deciding to check out from an ecommerce site.

Still, even though most eyetracking studies are misleading, some studies do produce valid results. Trying to keep any results a secret is thus a lost cause.

Most of our eyetracking findings on web advertising present no ethical dilemmas. For example, we know that there are 3 design elements that are mosteffective at attracting eyeballs

  • Plain text
  • Faces
  • Cleavage and other "private" body parts

在研讨会上展示了这些调查结果的详细信息,我没有问题Web Page UX Design;重要的是,所有网络设计师都知道用户在哪里查找页面。

横幅失明

新眼镜研究中最突出的结果实际上并不是新的。我们只是confirmed for the umpteenth time that banner blindness is real。Users almost永远不要看起来像广告的任何东西,是否实际上是广告。(实际上,横幅失明正在超越在线领域,例如进入ballot design。)

On hundreds of pages, users didn't fixate on ads. The following heatmaps show 3 examples that cover a range ofuser engagement内容:快速扫描部分阅读那and彻底阅读扫描比阅读更常见那but users will sometimes dig into an article if they really care about it.

3 heatmaps from eyetracking studies, showing where users looked at the pages
来自眼镜研究的热量:用户看起来最多的区域是彩色的;黄色区域表示较少的视图,其次是最小的蓝色区域。灰色区域没有吸引任何固定。在研究后,在图像之后绘制了绿色框以突出广告。

在所有层面的用户订婚时,该发现对于横幅相同(用上图中的绿色框概述):几乎no fixations within advertisements。If users are looking for a quick fact, they want to get done and aren't diverted by banners; and if users are engrossed in a story, they're not going to look away from the content.

The heatmaps also show how usersdon't fixate within design elements that resemble ads那even if they aren't ads (and thus aren't shown within green boxes above). Sadly, this means that将重要内容在右侧列中置于右侧可能是一个坏主意人们已经学会了不要看右铁路

Even when we did record a fixation within a banner, users typically didn't engage with the advertisement. Often, users didn't even see the advertiser's logo or name, even when they glanced at one or two design elements elsewhere inside an ad.

以下视频剪辑显示了一个用户眼部运动的凝视重播,同时寻找有关如何投资退休的建议。(移动的蓝色点显示用户正在寻找的地方。

Real-time speed19秒 - 是,是,当用户查看网页时,眼睛真的很快就会移动。(在大多数浏览器中,如果它们尚不可见,则鼠标悬停在视频上以显示控件。)
Slow-motion replay1 minute — slowing things down is the only way to really follow users' gaze patterns. (In most browsers, hover over the video to display the controls if they're not already visible.)

As the replay shows, the user did fixate once within the ad, but at that moment, the ad is obscured by a pull-down menu. In reality, the user couldn't see the message; the fixation was clearly a mistake that occurred while she was trying to reacquire the menu after briefly looking away from the screen. All of this occurs so quickly that you probably need to review the slow-motion replay to follow the action. (This is typical for eyetracking: the eye moves so fast that our best insights come from watching slow-motion replays.)

(Several readers have asked whether banner blindness extends to search engine ads. It doesn't:在SERP上的文字广告get a decent number of fixations. The other exception is classified ads. Finally, it's possible that commercials that are embedded within a video stream get viewed; we haven't researched this yet. So there are either 2 or 3 exceptions to the general rule that users avoid looking at ads on websites.)

第四,不道德,AD固定的道路

In addition to the 3 main design elements that occasionally attract fixations in online ads, we discovered a fourth approach that breaks one of publishing's main ethical principles bymaking the ad look like content

  • 越多的广告看起来像一个本机站点组件那the more users will look at it.
  • 广告看起来不仅应该像网站的其他设计元素,它应该似乎特定页面部分的一部分其中它显示。

这明显违反了分离“教会和国家”的出版原则 - 也就是说,编辑内容和付费广告之间的区别应该始终清晰。信誉良好的报纸不允许广告商模仿其品牌字体或其他布局元素。但是,为了最大限度地提高固定,这正是您在Web广告中所做的。

A specific ad may or may not be ethical, depending on how closely it masquerades as content. I caution against going too far, because it can反馈和误导用户。不道德的广告会让你更多的注视,但ethical business practices will attract more loyal customers in the long run.

Now the truth is out. As far as I'm concerned,说出真相is my highest ethical calling, and it's better that the facts be known to everyone than that they remain a secret abused by a few.

Ultimately, the fact that online ads get viewed more when they match surrounding content is a strikeagainst the tendency to build advertising networks。If advertising spots are simply auctioned off, then you can't design an optimized ad for each placement.

When you advertise through an advertising network, your ads will get fewer fixations than if you contract directly with the publisher for a specific placement and design your creative to fit that spot. As a result, you should bid less for network ads than for customized ads that you place yourself.

(See also:具有更新的眼压研究的新文章which confirms that these findindings still hold many years later.)