Pokemongo和Snapchat等流行应用使术语“增强现实”带入聚光灯。2016年7月,尼安切省的Pokemongo(流行的增强 - 现实游戏)报告了1000万美元的收入流每天仅从Pokemongo单独,证明增强现实特征可以在主流市场中取得成功。这种新引发了对增强现实的兴趣导致了对许多技术的自由应用程序,包括一些可能不一定有资格的技术,如此记录迈克尔杰克逊的全息图表演了现场观众。

Definition:Augmented reality(AR)指的是包含来自现有世界的实时输入的技术,以创建一个与现实世界的数据和一些编程的交互元件相结合的输出。

为了获得“增强现实”的资格,该技术必须:

  • 中文上的响应新的外部信息,并考虑对用户环境的更改
  • 实时解释手势和操作,最小止是用户的显式命令
  • 以不限制用户在环境中的运动的方式呈现

Thus, the hologram of Michael Jackson superimposed on a live show in which real dancers move in sync to the singer’s actions is not augmented reality. The hologram does not respond to any real-world inputs and is essentially a static contraption; in fact, the real world (represented by the dancers) augments the hologram, and not vice versa.

Augmented reality is an加强现实世界,以动态响应其变化。它与众不同虚拟现实(VR),其中隔离用户并向它们显示完全模拟的环境,包括主要制造的元素。(典型的VR示例包括科幻游戏或人类心脏巨大模型的演练。但是,虚拟和增强的现实都具有共同的实时,对用户的行为和与环境的交互的实际内容响应。

例子

增强现实的概念不是一个新的。经常被忽视的,但增强现实的普遍存在的实际情况是汽车停车辅助系统存在。在这些系统中,车辆的计算机计算车辆距离周围障碍物的距离,并且基于方向盘的位置,确定车辆的轨迹。然后,计算机增强了该外部输入,可以通过播放变化强度和频率作为距离减少的可听噪声,或者通过将车辆接近度和轨迹的符号覆盖到后摄像头视频馈送中。

Rear-parking 协助丰田普锐斯面向后饰的相机。
Source: PriusChat.com

以下是增强现实系统的其他一些示例:

Snapchat用户的照片,当她看起来和有增强
Snapchat使用面部识别技术使用户能够通过计算机生成的图像和动画来增强图像。
口袋妖怪的屏幕截图
口袋妖怪Go用户通过在现实世界中移动可以揭示的人物。
HoloLens in use
使用Microsoft的Hololens,用户可以在其他用户所感知的环境上应用图表和其他图形。
google_translate_app.jpg.jpg.jpg.
The Google Translate app uses the phone’s built-in camera to frame an area of text in the physical world and translates the text into another language.

为什么增强现实对UX很重要?

Augmented-reality interfaces are an example ofnoncommand用户界面其中使用由计算机系统收集的上下文信息来完成任务,而不是通过用户明确提供的命令。为了能够解释当前的上下文和“增强”现实,“代理”在后台运行,以分析许多外部输入并采取行动,或提供可操作的信息。

例如,Waverly Labs’ earpiece called “The Pilot” actively “listens” for another language in order to translate it in real time to English (or the user’s language of choice). The user does not need to tell the earpiece to listen every time a nearby person speaks; instead, the earpiece “agent” constantly interprets the real-world auditory input and starts translating based on the context of the situation. Other apps, such as Ingress, display an associated “portal” as soon as users approach a landmark. Similarly, the parking-assistance system does not require any additional input or commands from the user; it offers actionable information based on the vehicle’s current state (reverse gear) and position relative to surrounding obstacles.

As a type of noncommand UI, AR interfaces provide excellent opportunities for improving user experience. To see why, consider an airplane mechanic who crawls around inside the guts of an aircraft for an inspection and needs to check for how long a certain part has been in service. With a traditional screen-based user interface, the mechanic would have to somehow “save” the part number (by remembering it, taking a picture of it on a smartphone, or writing it down on a piece of paper) and then access a phone or computer-based system to determine for how long that part has been in operation. But with an AR technology like HoloLens or Google Glass, the service record could be displayed right on top of the item, with little to no commands from the user.

覆盖物理世界的信息将有助于机械师检查原位的任何疑似部件的记录,而无需任何外部设备或实施。可以快速重复操作,任何其他部分,并在它们恶化或导致事故之前快速拦截和诊断其他问题。

In this scenario (and in many others), AR can help the UX in 3 fundamental ways:

  1. Bydecreasing theinteraction cost执行任务
    我们示例中的机修工可以留在当前环境中,并在那里显示相关数据,没有做任何特殊行动。相比之下,通过巨头UI,机械师需要采取(潜在努力)的明确动作来访问信息 - 即,她必须诉诸特殊设备(电话或计算机)并与之交互。
    The lack of commands in AR interfaces makes the interaction efficient and requires little user effort: AR systems are proactive and take the appropriate action whenever the outside context requires it.
  2. By减少用户的认知负载
    在没有AR系统的情况下,机械师不必记住如何使用智能手机或桌面找到有关该部件的信息,而且还要找到部分编号本身(除非机械师将选择写下来或使用另一种形式的外部记忆 - 该决定本身就会增加相互作用成本)。使用AR系统,自动显示有用的部分信息,机械师不需要将部件号提交到工作存储器或花费努力在纸上或其他地方“保存”它。
    因此,AR UI以两种方式减少了工作记忆载荷:
    • 就像任何非Command UI一样,他们不要求用户学习命令。
    • They allow users to move information smoothly from one context to another.
  3. By组合多种信息来源,最大限度地减少注意力开关
    With a nonAR system, if the mechanic wanted to “save” the part number and use a different system to find its history, she would have to switch attention from the plane to the that external source of information providing the part’s age. With AR, the two sources of information are combined because the relevant information is displayed in an overlay on top of the part itself, so the mechanic won’t need to divide attention. Many complex tasks (e.g., surgery, writing a report) do involve putting together multiple sources of information; some of them will benefit from AR.

与AR接口的最后一个好处不同,另外两个 - 降低交互成本和认知负载 - 与所有非打字UI共享。

注意我们假设一个well-designed在我们的飞机维修示例中的用户界面:我们说机械师会看到每个部分旁边显示的“有用信息”。很容易想象一个设计不良的系统,这些系统会用太多信息或令人困难的展示来压倒机械师,或者令人困难的信息。与往常一样,良好的用户体验只能密切关注用户的需求,并且任何新的UI技术都会为粗心设计开辟更多机会。我们肯定会在未来几年内运输许多糟糕的AR系统 - 这就是为什么乌克斯专业人员有长期的工作保障,尽管技术变化。

结论

近年来,AR已经出现了大规模的成功,并且是无缝,低努力,但丰富的用户与现实世界的互动机会。As more technologies take advantage of this growing trend, augmented reality’s definition may certainly grow to encompass much more than it does now, but by understanding the users’ goals and contexts, developers and designers will ultimately be able to create a successful and effective augmented reality.