A couple years ago when shopping for a rug for my living room, I struggled to envision how each might look in my room. How large do I really want it to be? How would the colors and patterns coordinate with my current decor? At the time, I was lucky to come across a local store owner who let me take a rug home to try it out before purchasing it! Seeing that rug in its final space is what sealed the deal and made me feel confident in making a fairly large purchase.

但是那些时代在商店里看物理物品时,那些时候呢,更不用说把它带回家试试它?你仍然可以获得足够好的感觉这个物品,以便在线购买它吗?增强现实(AR)工具,允许用户“尝试”或在房间内查看项目,通过叠加在前面或后述的相机视图上的物品的数字图像,有可能成为更改游戏的购物功能允许用户在其潜在环境中预览该项目。然而,这项技术仍然有很长的路要走,在真正有用之前,副经会的经历损害了人们对其价值的看法。

To better understand how people perceive and interact with augmented-reality features while shopping for physical items online, we conducted aremote moderated study有10名参与者。虽然某些桌面网站有AR工具,但它们在移动设备上更为普遍,因此本研究仅关注移动设备的AR功能。此外,由于测试的一些AR移动应用程序仅支持IOS,因此我们将研究限制为具有支持AR技术的较新的iPhone型号的用户。

Participants were given broad shopping tasks on specific sites and apps that we knew to contain an AR feature, such as finding a pair of sunglasses or a new desk lamp for their home office. When possible, we matched the tasks given to each participant with their specific interests and shopping needs, which we gathered during the screening process. We used the待阶段任务方法:我们开始了广泛的任务来观察AR功能是否为可发现的以及用户是否有兴趣在没有提示的情况下与之交互。然后,如果人们不使用AR功能,我们会询问他们如何知道该项目在他们的空间中是否工作良好,或者在他们身上是否好看。如果他们仍然没有与之互动,我们促使他们用“那是什么?”将他们指向工具。

在本文中,我们讨论了与此技术有用的同时相关的发现以及用户如何感知。将在未来的文章中讨论用于设计AR工具的具体可用性指南。

由于covid增加了有用性

To address the elephant in the room: Yes,COVID-19 has changed user behaviors, 所以使用增强现实预览其最终环境中的项目由于COVID-19的限制以及人们对亲自购物和接触共享表面的普遍不安,它越来越有用。

几位参与者评论了这一增加的依赖在线购物。他们认为AR工具似乎特别有用bridging the gap of not seeing an item in real life在做出购买决定之前。对于大多数人想在购买前触摸或试穿的产品来说尤其如此——即使是亲自冒险进入一家企业,这样的行为仍然是不可能的。例如,大多数美容店不再设置化妆品样本来测试,也不会有人觉得涂上口红,这是很多人可能接触到的。(更不用说,你戴着面具怎么能这么做?)

For example, after one participant tried on makeup using Ulta’s mobile-app AR feature, she commented, “It’s been a long time since I’ve been to any place to get anything … I can see how, especially now — you know, that it’s hard to get out as much with Covid and everything — that this is really a nice feature.” She later added, “I like this. Because then you could feel more comfortable ordering it online too, as opposed to … having … to see the color in person.”

尝试在构成的用户照片使用ulta glamlab ar工具
Ulta移动应用程序:AR虚拟试穿功能允许人们“试穿”化妆品,无需进入商店或触摸实物样品。

Products that Benefit from AR

增强现实功能最helpful for items where美学或其他身体特征,例如尺寸是主要因素driving the purchase decision. Home décor and furniture are top candidates to get the AR treatment, as people want to ensure that these items would fit in their space and match their overall style. The ability to在AR中预览商品可以消除网上购物的一些不确定性,一些与会者评论说,他们更有信心,他们将不必经历退货的麻烦。例如,一位在目标移动应用程序上寻找台灯的参与者说:“这真的很有帮助,因为我知道它在我想要它去的空间里看起来是什么样子,而把它拿回家可能看起来不太对劲。”

2 AR工具的屏幕截图:1显示白色圆圈,表明虚拟物品将放在桌子上;1显示桌面上的虚拟灯。
目标移动应用程序:使用AR使用AR帮助人们预览购物者的物理空间中的桌子灯等项目,从而了解产品如何适应其环境。

For personal wearable items such as eyeglasses, AR tools can bemore helpful than images alone.尽管现在很多网站都在努力在产品图片中加入各种各样的模特,但这些人永远都不会像你一样you。由于一个用户在看着一对太阳镜的剪切产品图像时说:“在另一个人身上会看到它们很高兴,你知道,模型图或其他什么。但是…那不是我。那不是我的丈夫。所以,我would prefer to try them on myself.

Similarly, virtual makeup tools are extremely useful, as choosing the best shade of a product requires matching it to the individual’s skin tone (and undertones) in addition to personal style. Foundation-matching tools and other AR features that allowed users to see makeup products applied to their face were perceived as very helpful by participants. These tools made them feel comfortable buying the makeup online and enabled them to step outside their comfort zone and try a wider range of products than they might have otherwise. The AR experience was最有助于不透明的美容产品而不是纯粹, as these were更明显。作为一个参与者在看着唇膏时解释的,“我的意思是,[AR工具]对你不那么自然的,这将是更有帮助的。就像我如此接近我的天然唇色,有点难以说出差异。所以如果我试过一个狂野的一个[...]如果我正在寻找舒适区以外的东西,那么它可能是一个功能,让我足以推动它。“

尝试在唇膏颜色的用户的照片使用ulta glamlab ar工具。
Ulta移动应用程序:较深的唇色和较亮的眼影比裸色更明显。

即使并非所有物理项目都受益于AR能力,AR功能的存在也不是有害的(除非很难使用)。像冰箱或洗衣机一样的大器具似乎没有从AR受益,因为这些是首先也是最重要的functionalproducts —特征和技术规范是主要的差异因素。Yes, size is critical, as they must fit into a defined space in the user’s home, but that is easy to tell from the product’s written description, and would actually be hard to gauge from AR alone, as the technology to calibrate and accurately scale the item to the user’s environment isn’t quite there yet. However, because these are pricey purchases, any extra information was seen as helpful and users did still appreciate seeing how well the finishes matched their space. One participant also mentioned that she would have liked to interact with the refrigerator — for example by opening the doors to see whether it would hit a nearby cabinet.

准确性和现实主义决定了乐于助人

How realistic an item appeared and whether it seemed accurately placed in the environment had a huge impact on the overall perception of the tool’s helpfulness. “Cartoony” tools garnered laughs and didn’t persuade users to purchase the items. For example, a participant trying on earrings virtually on the Kendra Scott mobile website laughed, experimented with a few angles of her head, closed the AR tool and stated, “So, that would not make me have a higher chance to buy the item. I don't know what I expected it to look like, but when I looked straight on [to the camera] it didn't even look like they were on my ears…. Then I tilted it to one side to just see one and then I could kind of get it on my ear. And I just feel like, it looked like really cartoonish.”

照片显示,虚拟耳环徘徊在用户的脸附近,而不是挂在她的耳朵上。
Kendra Scott mobile website: The virtual try-on for earrings didn’t accurately place the item on the user’s ear and appeared too “cartoonish” to be helpful.

不过,值得庆幸的是negative perception of the AR feature didn’t extend to the item:users could separate the (lack of) functionality of the tool from their judgement of the product. The participant on the Kendra Scott website continued her comment: “It wouldn't deter me from buying the product though. Actually, … if I still really liked it, I would just look at it on the other person [model product photo] to get the idea of the size and what it would really look like. And I would kind of think like, ‘Oh, that's a nice try.’ … But这也不能阻止我。只是不会增加我买它的机会。”

人们意识到AR可能不会呈现在现实生活中完全相同的项目,所以只要AR渲染是合理的,他们都感受到了这个功能就是有帮助的。在ETSY移动应用程序上举办墙上艺术的参与者购物,“我认为它看起来很真实。我知道它会看起来有点不同,但它让你一个想法开始,所以我喜欢它。“

Photo showing virtual wall art stating Take it Easy placed on a beige wall.
Etsy移动应用程序:某些墙面艺术作品可以在AR中预览,使用户可以在任何现有艺术品或装饰旁边了解房间中的物品外观。

Issues with proportion and scale were not as easily overlooked, because衡量项目的大小是使用AR工具的最新原因. 外向摄像机视图的校准是困难的(墙壁比非常清晰的面部轮廓更难准确地检测),并且有许多工具努力平衡简单校准与准确性之间的权衡

没有校准的AR特性倾向于在用户场景中直接抛出项目的平面、非交互图像。因为这些都是不可缩放的,所以它们不能帮助用户了解项目相对于他们的空间会有多大。一般来说,这些2D室内视图features fell flat(双关语)和用户并没有印象。

“我喜欢能够与产品进行互动,而不是看看它的平面图片,如果我正在进行增强现实。喜欢,我真的很喜欢亚马逊时......你可以做的360视图你可以看到产品的背面,你可以看到产品下方,你可以放大。...你觉得你觉得自己在检查产品,您可以真正调查产品。所以,而不是只是叠加一张图片,只是让它更具互动 - 这很有帮助。“

3屏幕截图,可用性测试显示2D台,咖啡桌和镜像在每个用户的房间内的镜子不准确。
板条箱和木桶移动应用程序:2D室内视图feature required no calibration and could be used immediately; however, the results weren’t helpful because the items were flat images not shown to scale.

On the other hand, AR tools that assessed the camera view and aimed to show items to scale were often difficult to calibrate, to the point where users were forced to give up because they couldn’t get it to work. Further,not being able to place the item in a precise spot, to scale, hurt the overall perception of usefulness. 一位在Define的AR mobile应用程序中费力摆弄沙发的参与者解释说,“它不让我把沙发放在地板上,也不给我(准确的)比例……所以,它真的帮不了我那么多。”

另一名参与者因为无法校准工具,而难以使用百思买移动应用程序的AR功能将电视放在墙上。在她设法把它部分放在沙发上之后,她说:“这并不是非常有用,因为我需要在墙上看到它,而不是在沙发上,但是,我的意思是,它会让你觉得它会接近沙发的长度。但它应该可以把它挂在墙上。我想看看它到底是什么样子。不是,你知道,它可能看起来像什么。”

一个参与者的长沙发的照片与al al电视徘徊在它上面。
百思买移动应用程序:AR工具很难校准,所以用户最终将电视放在沙发上并将工具感到有限的有限性。

Past Experiences Drive Expectations

随着时间的推移,AR功能的负面经验可能会损害未来对该技术的期望。在启动AR工具之前,几位参与者评论了他们过去的这些功能,但是never used them seriously as a part of their purchase decision because they were difficult to use and yielded lackluster results。Each challenging encounter with AR technology adds to this perception that it is too much work to be worthwhile. Poor experiences can thus prevent people from taking advantage of AR features. In the words of one participant, “I’ve rarely used [AR] because it takes so much to get it to work, like you saw. But I do think they’re helpful when they work.”

另一位与会者对设计师的建议是解决问题。I think that’s a really good feature if it works well;otherwise, it can be really frustratingbecause we did spend several minutes just trying to get it to pop up there, and,when it did pop up, it was kind of underwhelming。”

一些参与者还利用了过去的品牌经验,为AR工具做出判决。(这是光晕效应at work!)Brands perceived as high-end or luxury were expected to have better-functioning AR toolscompared to budget-friendly companies. For example, one participant was disappointed that the Crate and Barrel mobile app’s室内视图这一特征仅仅在相机视图中叠加了一个二维图像。她说,“当我想到板条箱和木桶时,我认为它们比亚马逊和塔吉特更高端,所以它们应该能够做那些地方正在做的事情。……他们的新技术至少也应该一样好。”

Currently, Would Take It or Leave It

As is, AR technology isn’t refined to the point where it is a major source of information for making a purchase decision. At best, people might look at it, but not weigh it heavily as part of their consideration of the item. One participant explained, “It just seems like a way to enhance your shopping experience, as opposed to the sole way you’re going to make your decision. It … gives you supplemental information to make you want to buy it.”

Several participants commented that the product photos were more helpful than the AR feature, as they often gave a more detailed look at the items and offered a wider range of views. For many, these photos were enough:

“I’m used to always just looking at product photos. I probably would just be happy doing it that way … If it [AR] worked, it’d be nice to be able to see it in the area, but it’s not something we’re used to doing. In the past, I’ve either gone to a store and looked at it [the product], or just used my imagination.”

“The picture is worth a thousand words to me, you know. The ‘virtual assistant’ [AR] — I didn’t have that years ago.”

“我的意思是,当我在网站上查看沙发时,我会得到更好的视觉感觉,因为还有更多细节。...在网站上,我得到了更好的面料感,我对轮廓有更好的意义。......我稍后会在这个过程中使用这个AR部分而不是网站,因为在那时,我正试图看看我想知道的是我的实际空间是否适合。“

未来的兴奋

Current usability issues aside, people were still fairly excited to see that more and more places were offering AR features and showed faith in the potential of this technology. Participants were fully aware that AR is fairly new, which is likely why they were often quite forgiving when things didn’t quite function the way they had hoped.

In the future, participants hoped that AR could be more interactive and allow them not only to view different angles of an item but also to turn on and off a lamp, or open and close furniture drawers or appliance doors. For instance, after viewing a refrigerator in AR on the Home Depot app, one participant said, “I don't know if this is an option, but if … [you could] open the doors, … [to see] if it'll bang into the counter too much, to see just how much space it's taking … it might be nice to be able to see how the doors might open.”

Conclusion

增强现实具有比现实更好的潜力,因为它允许用户比现实生活更快更容易预览物品。例如,通过多个构成外观滑动比重复清洗脸部要更快地测试下一个颜色。同样,AR使消费者能够在最终位置预览家具,而是在商店中看到它,并且必须依赖测量和想象力。

然而,这项技术仍然有很长的路要走在可用性和有用性方面都有很长的路要走。使这些工具减少笨重并显示精确的尺寸会大大提高乐于助人。因为负面经历在人们的心目中往往很重,明智的做法是等到AR功能可以完全完善和测试,而不是过早地启动一个次AR体验。

用一位与会者的话说,“我认为做得很好的唯一方法就是让它感到非常现实。[当他们看起来没有现实的时候,]这是非常中立的,可能是当你花钱时,让有人创造出来,这是不值得的。所以,......如果我拥有一家公司,我不会使用这个[AR]或者把它放在我的网站上,直到它真正帮助消费者看到你的空间里有什么东西。”