介绍

敏捷已经采取了软件开发区。近年来,它已成为the most popular software-development methodology。敏捷发展有很大的好处:增量方法,改变方向的能力,基于客户和利益相关方反馈,短时间框架,让团队集中注意。

但是,敏捷方法专注于开发人员。他们逃离程序员试图解决大型软件开发项目中经历的常见痛点。臭名昭着的,这敏捷宣言(still the primary document delineating Agile principles) did not include UX people, nor did it account for the time, resources, and research that UX professionals need in order to create excellent designs.

在敏捷范式下,整个团队同时在项目的同一元素上工作,以避免“将其扔在墙上”(即将其从一个团队中送到另一个队伍,瀑布式)。这项工作是在“Sprints”中完成的 - 当团队专注于某些功能时,通常为2周的时间,然后继续前进。因此,设计人员在巨大的压力下创建,测试,精炼和传递不切实际的快速,以及很少的上下文和大图认为适合一致的用户中心设计。

如果是一个好的,你就没有错了UX人在您的组织中遇到敏捷工作。它很难。敏捷的刚性方式通常在大型组织中实施(通常使用Scrum或类似方法)可以使事情更具挑战性。2周的冲刺可以强迫设计团队中的隧道愿景,他们可以在特定的特征或用户故事中专注于他们可能会忽略大规模产品和设计含义,如集成,全米通道一致性或用户界面架构。

但是,一切都没有丢失!多年来,我们谈到了许多在敏捷环境中工作的UX专业人士,其中许多人不仅幸存下来,而且茁壮成长。一些共同的主题与那些幸乐和成功接受敏捷工作流程的人出现了谈话。没有剧本 - 大多数这些都是大规模的,战略性和组织因素,即个别UX贡献者可以最好地控制。

当敏捷为UX人的工作时,它是由于组织中有几个关键因素:

1. Managers and Leadership Understand the Value of UX

众多成功的敏捷UX专业人士表示,他们的组织中的经理和领导“得到它” - 他们了解UX真的是什么,why it is valuable to the product-development process以及它如何提供关键的竞争优势。这是一种描述的另一种方法UX maturity,我们长期以来一直在争论的概念是UX成功的关键(而且,业务成功)。这些组织中的决策者知道UX不仅仅是一种额外的油漆;相反,它是仔细和用户中心的产品策略,特征,结构,互动,内容,美学。这些经理和领导力不只是要求UX设计师采取已经在团队其他部分决定的功能和用户工作流程,并使它们看起来不错;相反,他们从一开始就把UX人带来,以确定这些事情应该如何工作

On these teams, managers also understand that building truly user-centered products需要与用户进行研究,并且研究类型必须超越简单A / B测试(which does not give the behavioral insights necessary to understand why one design or another works).

管理者和领导者在这些组织形式zations embrace uncertainty and understand that a “lean” approach means always hypothesizing,测试,和迭代上product ideas. The rich insights that UX designers need for their work require qualitative user-research methods. Whereas organizations that integrate Agile and UX poorly are often biased toward quantitative data as being the most important or most persuasive evidence for decision making, in Agile organizations where UX thrives, managers and leadership understand that定性见解与量化见解一样有价值,该团队从这些不同类型的数据中了解不同的东西。

2. UX People Show Leadership

虽然有理解和支持UX的经理和利益相关者非常重要,但反向也是如此:UX人在敏捷环境中成功地展出领导素质。他们指出了assumptions about user behavior如果错误,这可能证明灾难性。他们腾出时间来联系同事以帮助explain UX process and principles,和why they produce better products. They将其同事带入可用性测试建立同理心并观察用户挣扎。他们争取获得用户研究的时间,并设计正确的东西。在敏捷中茁壮成长的UX专业人员将团队推回较大的画面,以及人类实际使用这些正在建造的产品的背景。

敏捷过程是灵活的

敏捷不是最初被认为是一系列规则和仪式,它被发明为指导团队实现的一系列原则agility或者能够优雅地回应它们周围的变化。符合敏捷宣言的开发人员意识到他们已经花了大量的时间和能源管理变革:改变利益攸关方的期望,改变市场景观,不断变化的要求等。如果改变是一个常量,为什么要试图对抗它?构建一个需要变更的过程,并将其视为混乱,而是一个预期的投入。

敏捷是一个关于激进透明度的心态,并承认团队在项目开始时不知道所有答案。在实践中,许多组织使用Scrum实现了它,是一个众所周知的广泛使用的敏捷方法。组织经常采用Scrum,因为它是正确的,但由于有丰富的资源,而不是帮助他们快速接受“敏捷转型”。最终结果通常是一组新的不灵活的过程标准,不断的会议和令人困惑的行话。

Unfortunately, the orthodox Scrum process doesn’t work well for UX, because UX wasn’t originally considered in the Scrum definition. It’s a technology-centric process, focusing on small, independent units of work (typically in the form of user stories) that make sense from a computer-science perspective, but are tricky from a user-centric standpoint. Users don’t interact only with small parts of our designs in isolation, they use our products to accomplish larger goals, and all pieces of our designs must all work together harmoniously to provide a good user experience. (In fact, in an omnichannel world, users expect a company’s total user experience toperform seamlessly across多个产品, even when developed by different teams.)

当敏捷过程并不完全策划和严格时,UX效果很好。如果一个组织具有令人敏捷的过程中,如果例如UX在开发人员前方设计冲刺的情况下,如果UX在设计中,那么UX人员将比像素推动器更多地变得非常艰难。在敏捷中成功的UX专业人士在环境中关心的环境,而不是优雅地改变,而不是持续多长时间。包含UX井的团队将弄清楚如何管理任务和用户故事,以便UX有一段时间来提升生产并创建验证,研究和周到的设计。

4. UX专业人士和开发人员是同一团队的一部分

Effective Agile teams must communicate well and have a common understanding of what the project’s goals (both large and small) are. UX professionals can step beyond pixel pushing and decoration only if they are a key part of the team. When UX is organized as a separate department that “consults” for various product teams, UX professionals may not feel the same level of ownership for the project and may have difficulty developing trust and common ground with the core-team members.

A critical piece in the UX Agile puzzle is that, on successful teams, developers respect UX people and their processes, and are willing to listen to their insights and ideas. But this state of facts comes only after working together in close proximity: UX professionals must earn developers’ trust by rigorously validating design ideas, improving them, and communicating that rigor to the rest of the team in an honest and approachable way.

结论

让UX和敏捷工作很难在一起,如果你是一个愚蠢的UX人,你并不孤单。典型的敏捷过程不会考虑UX人们所需的时间,资源和范围,以便提供以用户为中心的产品。Despite that, UX and Agile can coexist well, provided that (1) the organization’s management understands and supports UX work, (2) UX practitioners display leadership and spend time on outreach their colleagues, (3) the Agile workflows are flexible enough to accommodate the needs of the UX, and (4) UX people are part of the product teams, where they can build respect and rapport with developers.

Learn more about thriving as a UX professional in an Agile environment in ourLean UX and Agileseminar, and from our report on有效的敏捷UX产品开发