对于可用性测试主持人来说,这是一个常见的挫折:你看到一个用户在一个不太理想的UI中挣扎,遇到许多错误和障碍。然后,当你要求用户评论她的体验时,她所能说的就是网站的出色配色方案。

During usability testing, one user encountered many issues while shopping on the FitBit site, ranging from minor annoyances in the interaction design to serious flaws in the navigation. She was able to complete her task, but with difficulty. However, in a posttask questionnaire, she rated the site very highly in ease of use. “It’s the colors they used,” she said. “Looks like the ocean, it’s calm. Very good photographs.” The positive emotional response caused by the aesthetic appeal of the site helped mask its usability issues.

这样的实例通常是审美可用性效果的结果。

定义:The一个esthetic-usability effect指用户倾向于将吸引力的产品视为更具可用性。人们倾向于相信那些事情更好的意志工作更好 - 即使它们实际上并不更有效或更有效。

换句话说,用户有对你的视觉设计有积极的情感反应,这使他们对次要的可用性问题更宽容在您的网站上。在大多数情况下,这是从你的角度来看的积极的。这种效果是良好的用户体验不能只是一个功能UI的主要原因 - 设计一个具有吸引力的界面以及功能性值得资源。

Apple的成功是竞争优势的优秀典范,即关注美学。

The aesthetic-usability effect was first studied in the field of human–computer interaction in 1995. Researchers Masaaki Kurosu and Kaori Kashimura from the Hitachi Design Center tested 26 variations of an ATM UI, asking the 252 study participants to rate each design on ease of use, as well as aesthetic appeal.

他们发现参与者对美学吸引力的评级和感知易用性比他们的美学吸引力和实际易用性之间的相关性的更强的相关性。Kurosu和Kashimura得出结论用户强烈影响任何给定接口的美学,即使他们试图评估潜在的功能系统的一部分。在他2004年的书中情绪设计, our colleague Don Norman explores this concept in depth as it applies to everyday objects.

请记住,美学可用性效应有其限制。一个漂亮的设计可以让用户更加原谅少数的usability problems, but not of larger ones. (As the first law of e-commerce states, if the user can’t找到the product, the user can’tbuy产品。如果他们遭受了糟糕的可取性,甚至伟大的网站也不会收入。)形式和功能应该一起工作。当界面遭受严重的可用性问题时,或者在牺牲美学的可用性时,用户往往会失去耐心。在网上,人们很快就离开了。

Arcadis, a consultancy, uses large background photos on many pages throughout the site. During a usability test, a participant responded positively to the site’s aesthetics: “First thing, popping into this webpage, I see this beautiful, colorful image.” After struggling to complete several tasks, however, the participant revised his opinion of the same design detail: “I feel like the whole screen being taken by this is pretty awesome once… And probably annoying the second time.”

在用户研究过程中解读对视觉效果的正面评价

在产品规划阶段,了解美学上的可用性效果对于资源分配的决策是至关重要的,但同时也对界面评估有着重要的意义。用户研究人员必须知道如何在可用性测试中发现这种影响,以及如何解释它。

当你的用户在现实生活中产生审美可用性效果时,这是一件好事。这意味着你的团队在创建一个漂亮的用户界面上的投资是有回报的,并与你的目标受众建立了联系。然而,当用户研究过程中出现美观的可用性效果时,它会阻止你发现可用性问题。

You can identify instances of the aesthetic-usability effect during user research by密切关注用户的所作所为以及如何与他们所说的话

So let’s imagine we’re facilitating an in-person qualitative usability-test session. We observe the participant struggling through a few tasks on a site, but his final feedback is a vague comment on the attractiveness of the interface.

Whenever we hear this kind of feedback that seems out of place, we need to consider three possibilities.

  • The participant might feel pressure to comment在something… anything. Users (especially novice ones) often find it easier to give feedback on the visual design of sites.
  • 参与者可能会感到说好话的压力一个bout the site. These empty compliments tend to happen when participants believe you had a hand in creating the site.
  • 审美可用性效应是干扰。让我们说我们排除了前两种可能性 - 我们认为我们的用户在会议中舒适,并且不感到压力来说些什么或给予空虚的赞美。这可能是审美可用性效果的真实实例。显然,有能力问题要修复,但这是我们的视觉设计可能正在进行工作的标志。

Once we determine为什么?our user is giving positive feedback on visual design after a negative experience, we can try to work around the problem.

评论的压力

有些人天生就不喜欢沉默。通过在你的课程早期建立一个低压力的氛围来减少对参与者说某事的压力。

  • 经常向参与者保证他们正在做什么并说是有帮助的。
  • Remember that the communication between a moderator and a participant isn’t the same as a regular conversation —适当的沉默是过程的一部分。
  • 通过提出开放式问题,让参与者在会议期间有充分的机会发表评论,但如果他们没有什么要说的,不要太用力。

对人友善的压力

再说一次,有些人天生就渴望取悦他人,这会在会议期间显现出来。但是你可以通过远离你正在测试的东西来避免这个问题。

  • 在开始每个测试环节之前,强调你没有设计网站(即使你是设计团队的技术研究人员),你是来向参与者学习的,负面评论不会伤害你的感情。听真话比虚夸更有价值!
  • 试着(尽可能地)不要在你的脸上或肢体语言中记录对他们评论的情绪反应。这比听起来更难,需要练习。试着保持一种愉快的,不具威胁性的,温和的兴趣。

审美可用性效果

有时,您可以通过探测用户思考UI的视觉层来解决审美可用性效果。但小心不要领导证人。像“模糊的问题一样,”你有关于找到这个信息的容易或困难的评论吗?“

You might also return the user to a page or stage in the process that seemed particularly challenging, and ask them to describe what happened.

Sometimes probing questions will help, but not always. Be willing to let it go and move on to the next task.

“伟大的配色方案”并不意味着您的视觉设计正在工作

请记住,当您在测试会话期间听到视觉设计的正反馈时,它不会必要地意味着你的视觉设计正在发挥作用。如上所述,你的用户可能会感到有压力发表评论或对你的网站说些好话。

此外,您的视觉设计可能很有吸引力,但它可能无法支持可用性。当情况下,用户可能仍然可以提出正面评论。该网站的视觉层次结构可能无法帮助用户了解其内容,或者缺乏意义者可能会降低相互作用。

结论

Aesthetically pleasing interfaces are worth the investment. Visual designs that appeal to your users have the side effects of making your site appear orderly, well designed, and professional. Users are more likely to want to try a visually appealing site, and they’re more patient with minor issues.

However, this effect is at its strongest when the aesthetics serve to support and enhance the content and functionality of the site. Additionally, this effect often influences user comments during research. As always, listen to what users say, but, first and foremost, take into account what they do.

工具书类

Kurosu,M.,&Kashimura,K。(1995)。表观可用性与固有的可用性。Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems - CHI '95.

Norman, D. A. (2004).情绪设计:为什么我们爱(或讨厌)日常事物。纽约:基本书。