3点击规则

3次点击规则是一个持久的,非官方启发式这表称,没有页面应该需要超过3次点击(或在触摸屏上的点击)来访问。一个变体发出最重要的信息,即最重要的信息不超过3次点击即可到达。通常,设计人员对网站导航和信息寻求任务应用此规则,但有些人还可以为其他类型的任务调用它(例如完成表单或向导)。

The 3-click rule assumes that users will become frustrated and will likely give up on tasks that require more than three total clicks to be completed. It is a simple way of assessing the互动成本重要的信息寻求任务,但它的肤浅性也是它的垮台。

3点击规则的大问题是它有not在任何公布的研究中都得到了数据的支持。事实上,Joshua Porter的一项研究已经揭穿了;该研究表明,当任务涉及3次点击时,用户辍学不会增加,也不会增加满意度。限制交互成本确实很重要,但图片比简单地计算点击并具有拇指规则,允许的最大数量更加复杂。

单击单击依据本身不是一个有意义的公制有几个原因:

  1. 完成任务所需的点击次数不仅取决于设计,而且还取决于任务复杂性 - 因此无法实现所有任务的绝对号码是不可能的。
  2. 并非所有单击等于:长度等待时间的一些结果(例如,加载新页面),其他是瞬间 - 例如,如果手风琴被扩展。
  3. 点击次数将很少讲述整个故事 - 设计的许多方面有助于其可用性,任务流是否涉及2点击或10.在现实世界中,用户犯错,误解事物,并困惑道路。只需计算进程中的步骤数目,错过了用户实际所做的事情,以及为他们提供更少令人沮丧的经历的机会。

在本文中,我们将专注于为什么3次点击规则不应盲目地设计IA和导航网站和导航。

NYC政府网站显示了一系列截图,具有非常长的菜单页面。
NYC.GOV:发现何处报告破碎的水表只需3次点击,但沿途,它仍然提供了一个费用的用户体验,需要大量的扫描和滚动。在主页上,用户必须点击NYC Resources(1), then look through a long page of links. Halfway down that page (below the fold on most laptops) is a section for Housing & Building with a link for租户(2),将用户带到了一个很长的链接列表Water Meter Complaint(3) all the way at the bottom, the 133rd link in the list.

3点击规则的起源

最早发布的3次点击规则的参考(这个作者可以找到)是在Jeffrey Zeldman的2001年书中,把你的才能带到网络上,他提出了一个已经存在的3次点击规则的一个广泛的概念。本书不提供支持3次点击的断言的数据,只需指出推理,“它广泛同意,即使是那些不是白痴的人,即网络用户都是快速满足的愿望。如果他们找不到他们在三次点击内寻找的东西,他们可能会转向别人的网站。“

虽然我们在Web用户的几年中看到了明显的证据确实被快速满足感的欲望推动值得注意的是,证据或研究不支持3次点击规则的第一个打印外观,但只需用户“可能”继续向别人的网站继续前进。

3点击规则推动过度广泛的导航UI

One of the main design implications of the 3-click rule is that navigation menus should not require users to click through multiple levels in order to find the information they care about. While this idea is reasonable, pursuing it relentlessly often requires designers to prioritize broad IAs (information architectures) over deep IAs.

In order to avoid long sequences of clicks, designers end up using many specific top-level categories in their menus, rather than fewer and less overwhelming top-level choices. Both非常宽阔,非常深的IA结构have their own usability problems. Very broad IAs with a large number of categories at the top level aremore laborious for users to assessand require a lot of UI space. Very deep structures with few top-level categories and a great number of tiers require either a lot of menu diving (often with frustrating悬停揭示的菜单或混淆sequential menus)或等待类别着陆页面以加载到低级别页面的大型时间。

有趣的是,在实践中,这意味着许多设计师必须在两个UX神话之间进行选择(既不支持数据):不超过3次点击或不超过7个主要 -导航类别。这就是为什么这么简单的拇指规则,无论他们如何合理,都没有受到无益 - 他们不受研究的支持,而且他们的冲突,所以他们推动设计师制作权衡决策between equally poor user experiences.

比计数点击更好

点击计数是评估交互成本和任务效率的粗略方式,因为它没有考虑到认知因素当用户需要阅读和了解长期选项时,会发现它们目前在该网站的结构中,或者建立他们需要做更多工作来实现目标目标的期望。这些元素至少与获取特定页面所涉及的单击次数一样重要。

More important to good navigation are the following:

  • 确保菜单项具有强大的名称信息香味and avoid模糊,不熟悉或品牌的条款
  • 包括清楚wayfinding(例如。,面包屑,本地小区显示他们目前在IA的用户。
  • 避免多级分层下拉菜单(桌面上)赞成Mega Menus.。分层(或级联)dropdown menusare error-prone, requireprecise mouse movements,一次仅显示一片网站IA。Mega Menus通常会显示多个级别的信息层次结构,并允许用户一目了然地比较多个途径,以了解他们应该调查哪个“邻居”。对于沿途犯错的用户,它们还支持简单的错误校正。没有什么比你需要做的高互动成本过程更令人沮丧两次因为你点击了错误的事情或意外关闭菜单。
在医疗保健网站上的多级分层导航菜单
Cardinal Health uses hierarchical dropdown menus for navigation. These menus are difficult to interact with, error-prone, and provide far less context than mega menus.
  • 确定最重要的信息寻求任务那and surface links to them从主页和其他重要页面。
  • 对于涉及多个步骤的途径,提供清晰的着陆页或导航枢纽at key points along the way。These landing pages offer groups of links, often with images or other elements that that help with unfamiliar terminology, provide stopping places along the way (that are retraceable with theBackbutton), and enable easy lateral movement to sibling pages in the same category. Remember, in most IAs, the higher levels of the hierarchy are general categories and the deeper ones are as more specific (and therefore, may require additional information or disambiguation along the way).
Website page that is a navigation hub, with a series of links on a page, rather than a menu
埃森哲Cybersecurity capabilitiesnavigation-hub page provides lists of links that would otherwise be several levels deep within hierarchical dropdown menus. The page also includes helpful descriptions of each link for users that are unfamiliar with the terminology.
  • Make sure that when a click results in a new page,the page load time isminimal。3 clicks that each have a long load time lead to a worse experience than 5 clicks that quickly load.

概括

Although limiting the amount of effort required to access key information or to accomplish a task is important, the 3-click rule is arbitrary. There is nothing inherent about 3 clicks as a magical threshold before users will get frustrated. More important than focusing on the raw number of clicks is to ensure that navigation is well organized with clear pathways, that content gets progressively more specific the deeper into the site structure your users advance, and that your site visitors always know where they currently are and how to get to their destination.

参考

将您的才能带到网络上:过渡设计师的指南,杰弗里·塞尔德曼,2001年

Porter, Josh. (2003). Testing the Three-Click Rule.关联